Abstract

A series of ZnO microcrystallite films deposited on quartz substrates were annealed at the temperature of 600~1050 °C. A well c-axis grown wurtzite ZnO film was obtained at the annealing temperature of 850 °C. For the samples annealed above this temperature, the empirical parameter E 0 increased calculated from transmittance spectra, which indicated the changes of the interface of ZnO microcrystallite. Measured by Z-scans, the nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff increased from 1.2×102 cm/GW to 1.1×103 cm/GW when the annealing temperature rose from 950 °C to 1050 °C, mainly due to the interfacial state enhancement.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. D. Hunt , “ Isomorphic surface acoustic waves on multilayer structures ,” J. Appl. Phys.   89 , 3245 – 3249 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke , “ Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: the effect of substrate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   81 , 6357 – 6364 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. L. Jia , K. M. Wang , X. L. Wang , X. J. Zhang , and F. Lu , “ Formation of c -axis oriented ZnO opticalwaveguides by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5093 – 5099 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract. cfm?URI=OPEX-13-13-5093 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Gupta and A. Mansingh , “ Influence of post-deposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film ,” J. Appl. Phys.   80 , 1063 – 1073 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. W. Hong and J. H. Kim , “ The electrical properties of Mn3O4-doped ZnO ,” Ceram. Int.   30 , 1301 – 1306 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Zhang , Q. P. Wang , and Z. Y. Xue , “ Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   207 , 20 – 25 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. Jia , G. Z. Zhang , W. H. Xiang , and J. B. Ketterson , “ Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   21 , 1356 – 1358 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. J. Zhang , W. Ji , and S. H. Tang , “ Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 1951 – 1955 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. S. Lin , J. L. Huang , and D. F. Lii , “ Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   90 , 22 – 30 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Hashimoto , H. Fujita , and H. Hase , “ Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz ,” Radiat. Meas.   33 , 431 – 437 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Yakuphanoglu , M. Sekerci , and O. F. Ozturk , “ The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3- o -cyclohexylidinepropane thin film ,” Opt. Commun.   239 , 275 – 280 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. M. Reddy , S. V. Manorama , and A. R. Reddy , “ Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   78 , 239 – 245 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Sheik-Bahae , D. J. Hagan , and E. W. Ban Stryland , “ Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,   65 , 96 – 99 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. A. Dhas , A. Zaban , and A. Gedanken , “ Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties ,” Chem. Mater.   11 , 806 – 813 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. T. Fei1 , S. H. Ma , Z. F. Ying , and L. D. Zhang , “ Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil ,” Mater. Res. Bull.   34 , 217 – 224 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

2005 (8)

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lin , J. L. Huang , and D. F. Lii , “ Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   90 , 22 – 30 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Jia , K. M. Wang , X. L. Wang , X. J. Zhang , and F. Lu , “ Formation of c -axis oriented ZnO opticalwaveguides by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5093 – 5099 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract. cfm?URI=OPEX-13-13-5093 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

G. M. Jia , G. Z. Zhang , W. H. Xiang , and J. B. Ketterson , “ Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   21 , 1356 – 1358 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

F. Yakuphanoglu , M. Sekerci , and O. F. Ozturk , “ The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3- o -cyclohexylidinepropane thin film ,” Opt. Commun.   239 , 275 – 280 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Hong and J. H. Kim , “ The electrical properties of Mn3O4-doped ZnO ,” Ceram. Int.   30 , 1301 – 1306 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang , Q. P. Wang , and Z. Y. Xue , “ Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   207 , 20 – 25 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

2002 (3)

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Reddy , S. V. Manorama , and A. R. Reddy , “ Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   78 , 239 – 245 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. D. Hunt , “ Isomorphic surface acoustic waves on multilayer structures ,” J. Appl. Phys.   89 , 3245 – 3249 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto , H. Fujita , and H. Hase , “ Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz ,” Radiat. Meas.   33 , 431 – 437 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dhas , A. Zaban , and A. Gedanken , “ Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties ,” Chem. Mater.   11 , 806 – 813 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Fei1 , S. H. Ma , Z. F. Ying , and L. D. Zhang , “ Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil ,” Mater. Res. Bull.   34 , 217 – 224 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang , W. Ji , and S. H. Tang , “ Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 1951 – 1955 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke , “ Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: the effect of substrate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   81 , 6357 – 6364 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Gupta and A. Mansingh , “ Influence of post-deposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film ,” J. Appl. Phys.   80 , 1063 – 1073 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae , D. J. Hagan , and E. W. Ban Stryland , “ Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,   65 , 96 – 99 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Aghamalyan, N. R.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Aleixandre, M.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, A.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, M.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chattapadhyay, S.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. F.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke , “ Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: the effect of substrate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   81 , 6357 – 6364 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Dhas, N. A.

N. A. Dhas , A. Zaban , and A. Gedanken , “ Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties ,” Chem. Mater.   11 , 806 – 813 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. X.

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z. B.

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Fei1, G. T.

G. T. Fei1 , S. H. Ma , Z. F. Ying , and L. D. Zhang , “ Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil ,” Mater. Res. Bull.   34 , 217 – 224 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, M. J.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

T. Hashimoto , H. Fujita , and H. Hase , “ Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz ,” Radiat. Meas.   33 , 431 – 437 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Gambaryan, I. A.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Gedanken, A.

N. A. Dhas , A. Zaban , and A. Gedanken , “ Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties ,” Chem. Mater.   11 , 806 – 813 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Goulanian, E. K.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Gracia, I.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. X.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta and A. Mansingh , “ Influence of post-deposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film ,” J. Appl. Phys.   80 , 1063 – 1073 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, J.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae , D. J. Hagan , and E. W. Ban Stryland , “ Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,   65 , 96 – 99 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Hase, H.

T. Hashimoto , H. Fujita , and H. Hase , “ Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz ,” Radiat. Meas.   33 , 431 – 437 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

T. Hashimoto , H. Fujita , and H. Hase , “ Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz ,” Radiat. Meas.   33 , 431 – 437 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

He, H. B.

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Hong, R. J.

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. W.

Y. W. Hong and J. H. Kim , “ The electrical properties of Mn3O4-doped ZnO ,” Ceram. Int.   30 , 1301 – 1306 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Horrillo, M. C.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

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N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. B.

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. L.

S. S. Lin , J. L. Huang , and D. F. Lii , “ Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   90 , 22 – 30 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. H.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
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W. D. Hunt , “ Isomorphic surface acoustic waves on multilayer structures ,” J. Appl. Phys.   89 , 3245 – 3249 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Jang, M. S.

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Ji, F.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang , W. Ji , and S. H. Tang , “ Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 1951 – 1955 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Jia, C. L.

Jia, G. M.

G. M. Jia , G. Z. Zhang , W. H. Xiang , and J. B. Ketterson , “ Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   21 , 1356 – 1358 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

G. M. Jia , G. Z. Zhang , W. H. Xiang , and J. B. Ketterson , “ Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   21 , 1356 – 1358 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. W. Hong and J. H. Kim , “ The electrical properties of Mn3O4-doped ZnO ,” Ceram. Int.   30 , 1301 – 1306 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kostanyan, R. B.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Li, T. J.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Lii, D. F.

S. S. Lin , J. L. Huang , and D. F. Lii , “ Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   90 , 22 – 30 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. H.

J. H. Lin , Y. J. Chen , H. Y. Lin , and W. F. Hsieh , “ Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 033526 (1–6) ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. S.

S. S. Lin , J. L. Huang , and D. F. Lii , “ Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   90 , 22 – 30 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. T.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Q.

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Lu, Y. M.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

G. T. Fei1 , S. H. Ma , Z. F. Ying , and L. D. Zhang , “ Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil ,” Mater. Res. Bull.   34 , 217 – 224 ( 1999 ).
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Manorama, S. V.

K. M. Reddy , S. V. Manorama , and A. R. Reddy , “ Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   78 , 239 – 245 ( 2002 ).
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Mansingh, A.

V. Gupta and A. Mansingh , “ Influence of post-deposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film ,” J. Appl. Phys.   80 , 1063 – 1073 ( 1996 ).
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Martinez, A.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, O. F.

F. Yakuphanoglu , M. Sekerci , and O. F. Ozturk , “ The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3- o -cyclohexylidinepropane thin film ,” Opt. Commun.   239 , 275 – 280 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Panin, G. N.

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Petrosyam, S. I.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H. J.

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Z. M.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, A. R.

K. M. Reddy , S. V. Manorama , and A. R. Reddy , “ Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   78 , 239 – 245 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K. M.

K. M. Reddy , S. V. Manorama , and A. R. Reddy , “ Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles ,” Mater. Chem. Phys.   78 , 239 – 245 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Rutht, A. A.

S. Couris , E. Koudoumas , A. A. Rutht , and S. Leach , “ Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C 60 in toluene solution ,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.   28 , 4537 – 4554 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, M. K.

M. K. Ryu , S. H. Lee , M. S. Jang , G. N. Panin , and T. W. Kang , “ Postgrowth annealing effect on structureand optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique ,” J. Appl. Phys.   92 , 154 – 158 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. P.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Sanyal, D.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
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Sarkar, A.

M. Chakrabarti , S. Dutta , S. Chattapadhyay , A. Sarkar , D. Sanyal , and A. Chakrabarti , “ Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi 2 O 3 powder ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1792 – 1796 ( 2004 ).
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Sayago, I.

I. Sayago , M. Aleixandre , A. Martinez , M. J. Fernandez , J. P. Santos , J. Gutierrez , I. Gracia , and M. C. Horrillo , “ Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 37 – 41 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Sekerci, M.

F. Yakuphanoglu , M. Sekerci , and O. F. Ozturk , “ The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3- o -cyclohexylidinepropane thin film ,” Opt. Commun.   239 , 275 – 280 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

R. J. Hong , H. J. Qi , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films ,” Thin Solid Films   473 , 58 – 62 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong , J. B. Huang , H. B. He , Z. X. Fan , and J. D. Shao , “ Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   242 , 346 – 352 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae , D. J. Hagan , and E. W. Ban Stryland , “ Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,   65 , 96 – 99 ( 1990 ).
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Shen, D. Z.

J. G. Ma , Y. C. Liu , R. Mu , J. Y. Zhang , Y. M. Lu , D. Z. Shen , and X. W. Fan , “ Method of control of nitrogencontent in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B   22 , 94 – 98 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C. S.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
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Srikant, V.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke , “ Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: the effect of substrate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   81 , 6357 – 6364 ( 1997 ).
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Stryland, E. W. Ban

M. Sheik-Bahae , D. J. Hagan , and E. W. Ban Stryland , “ Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,   65 , 96 – 99 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. S.

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

Tang, Z. K.

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Vardanyan, E.S.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. J.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Wang, H.

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

Wang, L. L.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. P.

Zhang , Q. P. Wang , and Z. Y. Xue , “ Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   207 , 20 – 25 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

Wang, Y. H.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Y.

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

W. L. Zhang , H. Wang , K. S. Wong , Z. K. Tang , G. K. L. Wong , and R. Jain , “ Third-order optical nonlinearityin ZnO microcrystallite thin films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 3321 – 3323 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W. H.

G. M. Jia , G. Z. Zhang , W. H. Xiang , and J. B. Ketterson , “ Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   21 , 1356 – 1358 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R. G.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Xu, C. M.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. L.

X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Z. Y.

Zhang , Q. P. Wang , and Z. Y. Xue , “ Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   207 , 20 – 25 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Yakuphanoglu, F.

F. Yakuphanoglu , M. Sekerci , and O. F. Ozturk , “ The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3- o -cyclohexylidinepropane thin film ,” Opt. Commun.   239 , 275 – 280 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z. J.

Z. B. Fang , Z. J. Yan , Y. S. Tan , X. Q. Liu , and Y. Y. Wang , “ Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   241 , 303 – 308 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. S.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Yao, J. N.

R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

Ying, Z. F.

G. T. Fei1 , S. H. Ma , Z. F. Ying , and L. D. Zhang , “ Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil ,” Mater. Res. Bull.   34 , 217 – 224 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. H.

X. H. Yu , J. Ma , F. Ji , Y. H. Wang , X. J. Zhang , C. F. Cheng , and H. L. Ma , “ Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f magnetron-sputtering at low temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   274 , 474 – 479 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Zaban, A.

N. A. Dhas , A. Zaban , and A. Gedanken , “ Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties ,” Chem. Mater.   11 , 806 – 813 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Zerrouk, A. F.

N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang,

Zhang , Q. P. Wang , and Z. Y. Xue , “ Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   207 , 20 – 25 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Z.

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H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
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X. Zhang , H. Fang , S. Tang , and W. Ji , “ Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 549 – 554 ( 1997 ).
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R. G. Xie , J. Q. Zhuang , L. L. Wang , W. S. Yang , D. J. Wang , T. J. Li , and J. N. Yao , “ A WO 3 /ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance ,” Chem. J. Chinese U.   24 , 2086 – 2088 ( 2003 ).

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X. L. Xu , C. X. Guo , Z. M. Qi , H. T. Liu , J. Xu , C. S. Shi , C. Chong , W. H. Huang , Y. J. Zhou , and C. M. Xu , “ Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   364 , 57 – 63 ( 2002 ).
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H. Cao , Y. G. Zhao , S. T. Ho , E. W. Seelig , Q. H. Wang , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2278 – 2281 ( 1999 ).
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N. R. Aghamalyan , I. A. Gambaryan , E. K. Goulanian , R. K. Hovsepyan , R. B. Kostanyan , S. I. Petrosyam , E.S. Vardanyan , and A. F. Zerrouk , “ Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation ,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.   18 , 525 – 529 ( 2003 ).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD patterns of the samples annealed at different temperatures: A: 600°C, B: 750°C, C: 850°C, D: 950°C and E: 1050°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical transmittance spectra of the series of samples. (b) Plot of (α 0 E phot)2 versus E phot for direct transition, band gap energy Eg are obtained by extrapolation to α 0=0. (c) Band gap energy Eg versus particle size. (d) The variation of E 0 with annealing temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Open-aperture z-scan traces of the samples annealed at 1050°C, the solid line is the theoretical fit. (b) β eff and α 0 values versus annealing temperatures.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 0 ( h ν ) = A E 0 3 2 exp ( E 0 ) ,
E 0 = [ d ln ( α 0 ) d ln ( h ν ) ] 1
T = m = 0 ( q 0 ) m ( 1 + z 2 z 0 2 ) m ( 1 + m ) 3 2 ( m 0 )
T = 1 + 4 Δ ϕ 0 ( z z 0 ) [ ( z z 0 ) 2 + 9 ] [ ( z z 0 ) 2 + 1 ]

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