Abstract

A series of ZnO microcrystallite films deposited on quartz substrates were annealed at the temperature of 600~1050 °C. A well c-axis grown wurtzite ZnO film was obtained at the annealing temperature of 850 °C. For the samples annealed above this temperature, the empirical parameter E 0 increased calculated from transmittance spectra, which indicated the changes of the interface of ZnO microcrystallite. Measured by Z-scans, the nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff increased from 1.2×102 cm/GW to 1.1×103 cm/GW when the annealing temperature rose from 950 °C to 1050 °C, mainly due to the interfacial state enhancement.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. Zhang, H. Fang and S. Tang, W. Ji, �??Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique,�?? Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. L. Zhang, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong and R. Jain, �??Third-order optical nonlinearity in ZnO microcrystallite thin films,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3321-3323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

D. H. Zhang, Q. P. Wang and Z. Y. Xue, �??Photoluminescence of ZnO films excited with light of different wavelength,�?? Appl. Surf. Sci. 207, 20-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hong, J. B. Huang, H. B. He, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, �??Influence of different post-treatments on the structure and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films,�?? Appl. Surf. Sci. 242, 346-352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Fang, Z. J. Yan, Y. S. Tan, X. Q. Liu, and Y. Y. Wang, �??Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films,�?? Appl. Surf. Sci. 241, 303-308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Int. (1)

Y. W. Hong and J. H. Kim, �??The electrical properties of Mn3O4-doped ZnO,�?? Ceram. Int. 30, 1301-1306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. J. Chinese U. (1)

R. G. Xie, J. Q. Zhuang, L. L. Wang, W. S. Yang, D. J. Wang, T. J. Li and J. N. Yao, �??A WO3/ZnO nanoparticle composite system with high photochromic performance,�?? Chem. J. Chinese U. 24, 2086-2088 (2003).

Chem. Mater. (1)

N. A. Dhas, A. Zaban, and A. Gedanken, �??Surface synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles on silica microspheres: Sonochemical preparation, characterization, and optical properties,�?? Chem. Mater. 11, 806-813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

K. M. Reddy, S. V. Manorama, A. R. Reddy, �??Bandgap studies on anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles,�?? Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 239-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. L. Xu, C. X. Guo, Z. M. Qi, H. T. Liu, J. Xu, C. S. Shi, C. Chong, W. H. Huang, Y. J. Zhou and C. M. Xu, �??Annealing effect for surface morphology and luminescence of ZnO film on silicon,�?? Chem. Phys. Lett. 364, 57-63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. M. Jia, G. Z. Zhang, W. H. Xiang, J. B. Ketterson, �??Measurement of the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan,�?? Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1356-1358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

M. K. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and M. S. Jang, G. N. Panin and T. W. Kang, �??Postgrowth annealing effect on structure and optical properties of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 92, 154-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, �??Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526(1-6) (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Gupta and A. Mansingh, �??Influence of post-deposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1063-1073 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Hunt, �??Isomorphic surface acoustic waves on multilayer structures,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3245-3249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, �??Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: the effect of substrate,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6357-6364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

X. H. Yu, J. Ma, F. Ji, Y. H. Wang, X. J. Zhang, C. F. Cheng and H. L. Ma, �??Effects of sputtering power on the properties of ZnO:Ga films deposited by r. f. magnetron-sputtering at low temperature,�?? J. Cryst. Growth 274, 474-479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, A. A. Rutht and S. Leach, �??Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C60 in toluene solution,�?? J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 4537-4554 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, R. Mu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, �??Method of control of nitrogen content in ZnO films: Structure and photoluminescence properties,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 94-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. S. Lin, J. L. Huang and D. F. Lii, �??Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ti-doped ZnO films by simultaneous rf and dc magnetron sputtering,�?? Mater. Chem. Phys. 90, 22-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

G. T. Fei1, S. H. Ma, Z. F. Ying and L. D. Zhang, �??Third-order nonlinear optical properties and the influence of surface state of nanoscale Ag particles dispersed in silicon oil,�?? Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Chakrabarti, S. Dutta, S. Chattapadhyay, A. Sarkar, D. Sanyal and A. Chakrabarti, �??Grain size dependence of optical properties and positron annihilation parameters in Bi2O3 powder,�?? Nanotechnology 15, 1792-1796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, �??The determination of the optical constant of Cu(ll ) compound having 1-chloro-2, 3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film,�?? Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, �??Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Ban Stryland, �??Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett., 65, 96-99 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

T. Hashimoto, H. Fujita, and H. Hase, �??Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz,�?? Radiat. Meas. 33, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. R. Aghamalyan, I. A. Gambaryan, E. K. Goulanian, R. K. Hovsepyan, R. B. Kostanyan, S. I. Petrosyam, E. S. Vardanyan and A. F. Zerrouk, �??Influence of thermal annealing on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by electron beam evaporation,�?? Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 525-529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, A. Martinez, M. J. Fernandez, J. P. Santos, J. Gutierrez, I. Gracia and M. C. Horrillo, �??Structure studies of Zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering,�?? Synth. Met. 148, 37-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. J. Hong, H. J. Qi, J. B. Huang, H. B. He, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, �??Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,�?? Thin Solid Films 473, 58-62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD patterns of the samples annealed at different temperatures: A: 600°C, B: 750°C, C: 850°C, D: 950°C and E: 1050°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical transmittance spectra of the series of samples. (b) Plot of (α 0 E phot)2 versus E phot for direct transition, band gap energy Eg are obtained by extrapolation to α 0=0. (c) Band gap energy Eg versus particle size. (d) The variation of E 0 with annealing temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Open-aperture z-scan traces of the samples annealed at 1050°C, the solid line is the theoretical fit. (b) β eff and α 0 values versus annealing temperatures.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 0 ( h ν ) = A E 0 3 2 exp ( E 0 ) ,
E 0 = [ d ln ( α 0 ) d ln ( h ν ) ] 1
T = m = 0 ( q 0 ) m ( 1 + z 2 z 0 2 ) m ( 1 + m ) 3 2 ( m 0 )
T = 1 + 4 Δ ϕ 0 ( z z 0 ) [ ( z z 0 ) 2 + 9 ] [ ( z z 0 ) 2 + 1 ]

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