Abstract

A simple method for fabricating selective injection microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) using a conventional fusion splicer is described. The effects of fusion current, fusion duration and offset position on the hole collapse property of the MOFs are investigated. With this method, the central hollow-core and the holes in the cladding region can be selectively infiltrated, which allows for the fabrication of novel hybrid polymer-silica and liquid-silica MOFs for various applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  20. User’s manual for the FSU 975 single fiber fusion splicer by Ericsson .

2005 (5)

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen , D. Noordegraaf , T. Sørensen , A. Bjarklev , and T. P. Hansen , “ Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   7 , L13 – L20 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise , “ Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using grin fiber lenses ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 118 – 120 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli , J. Canning , K. Lyytikainen , and N. Groothoff , “ Water-core fresnel fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3890 – 3895 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3890
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yiou , P. Delaye , A. Rouvie , J. Chinaud , R. Frey , G. Roosen , P. Viale , S. Février , P. Roy , J. Auguste , and J. Blondy , “ Stimulated raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4786 – 4791 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4786
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. B. Jensen , L. H. Pedersen , P. E. Hoiby , L. B. Nielsen , T. P. Hansen , J. R. Folkenberg , J. Riishede , D. Noordegraaf , K. Nielsen , A. Carlsen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1974 – 1976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini , “ Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   15 , 1120 – 1128 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang , Y. Xu , and A. Yariv , “ Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5182 – 5184 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Auguste, J.

Baggett, J. C.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.A.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bise, R. T.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise , “ Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using grin fiber lenses ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 118 – 120 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

Blondy, J.

Bourliaguet, B.

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

Canning, J.

Carlsen, A.

Chinaud, J.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Croteau, A.

Delaye, P.

Dolinski, M.

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eggleton, B.J.

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

C. Kerbage and B.J. Eggleton , “ Numerical analysis and experimental design of tunable birefringence in microstructured optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   10 , 246 – 255 ( 2002 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-5-246
[PubMed]

Émond, F.

Février, S.

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini , “ Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   15 , 1120 – 1128 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Frey, R.

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Groothoff, N.

Gu, M.

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Hale, A.

Hansen, T. P.

Hermann, D.S.

Ho, H. L.

Hoiby, P. E.

Hoo, Y. L.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang , Y. Xu , and A. Yariv , “ Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5182 – 5184 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Jensen, J. B.

Jin, W.

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J.C.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, T.T.

Lyytikainen, K.

Mach, P.

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Martelli, C.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.C.

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Paré, C.

Pedersen, L. H.

Proulx, A.

Reyes, P.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Riishede, J.

Rogers, J.A.

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Roosen, G.

Rouvie, A.

Roy, P.

Ruan, S. C.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

Sørensen, T.

K. Nielsen , D. Noordegraaf , T. Sørensen , A. Bjarklev , and T. P. Hansen , “ Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   7 , L13 – L20 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Steinvurzel, P.

Straub, M.

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Tachikura, M.

Vallée, R.

Viale, P.

Wang, D. N.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Windeler, R.S.

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Huang , Y. Xu , and A. Yariv , “ Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5182 – 5184 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise , “ Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using grin fiber lenses ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 118 – 120 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon , Optical fiber fusion splicing , ( Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag press , 2005 ).

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang , Y. Xu , and A. Yariv , “ Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5182 – 5184 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Yiou, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Huang , Y. Xu , and A. Yariv , “ Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5182 – 5184 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

P. Domachuk , H.C. Nguyen , B.J. Eggleton , M. Straub , and M. Gu , “ Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1838 – 1840 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise , “ Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using grin fiber lenses ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 118 – 120 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Nielsen , D. Noordegraaf , T. Sørensen , A. Bjarklev , and T. P. Hansen , “ Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   7 , L13 – L20 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

J. M. Fini , “ Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   15 , 1120 – 1128 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

T. M. Monro , W. Belardi , K. Furusawa , J. C. Baggett , N. G. R. Broderick , and D. J. Richardson , “ Sensing with microstructured optical fibres ,” Meas. Sci. Technol.   12 , 854 – 858 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J.C. Knight , T.A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Kerbage , R.S. Windeler , B.J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J.A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Benabid , G. Bouwmans , J.C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , and F. Couny , “ Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational raman scattering in molecular hydrogen ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 123903 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. D. Yablon , Optical fiber fusion splicing , ( Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag press , 2005 ).

User’s manual for the FSU 975 single fiber fusion splicer by Ericsson .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the cross section of the MOF used for the experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The positioning of the electrode axis when (a) two SMFs are to be fusion spliced, (b) a SMF is to be spliced to a MOF, (c) The current and energy density distribution in an arc fusion splicer[18,19], (d) The close-up of the end part of the MOF in the temperature(energy density) distribution field of Fig. 2(c), (e) Illustration of the transverse temperature distribution in the MOF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

End-face of the MOF. (a) without arc discharge; (b) arc current =12.5mA; (c) arc current =14.5mA. The discharge duration and offset distance are kept constant at 0.3 second and 50 μm, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

End views of the MOF with different arc currents when the arc duration is 0.3 second and the offset distance is 50μm. The right picture is the close-up of the center part of the left picture. (a) 12.5mA, (b) 13mA, (c) 13.5mA, (d) 14mA, (e) 14.5mA, (f) 15mA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

End views of the MOF with different arc durations. (a) 0.3 second, (b) 0.4 second, and (c) 0.5 second. The arc current and offset distance are kept constant at 13.5mA and 50μm, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

End views of the MOF with different offset distances when the arc duration and arc current are fixed at 0.3 second and 13.5mA, respectively. (a) 50μm, (b) 40μm, (c) 30μm, (d) 20μm, (e) 10μm, (f) 0μm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Optical microscope image and (b) SEM image of the MOF with the central hole filled with NOA74.

Equations (3)

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i ( r , z ) = I 0 2 π σ 2 ( z ) exp ( r 2 2 σ 2 ( z ) ) ,
σ ( z ) = σ 0 ( 1 + C z 2 ) 1 3 , r 2 = x 2 + y 2 .
V collapse = γ 2 η

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