Abstract

We demonstrate a new type of laser composed of an array of coupled photonic crystal nanocavities that enables high differential quantum efficiency and output power, together with a low threshold power comparable to those of single photonic crystal cavity lasers. In our experiment, the laser efficiency increases faster than the lasing threshold with an increase in the number of coupled cavities. We observe a single mode lasing and measure the output powers that are two orders of magnitude higher than in single nanocavity lasers. Finally, we study the laser behavior theoretically and show that the benefits resulting from the coupling of cavities are due to strong cavity effects such as the enhanced spontaneous emission rate.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
    [Crossref]
  2. K. L. Lear , et. al. “ Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ”, Advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in series OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics   15 , 69 – 74 ( 1997 )
  3. E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Purcell , “ Spontaneous emission Probabilities at Radio Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev.   69 , 681 ( 1946 )
  6. O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  8. H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal resonator arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 161 – 163 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  15. D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
    [Crossref]
  17. M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
    [Crossref]
  18. J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 111102 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Optics Lett.   30 , 982 – 984 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Imamoglu and Y. Yamamoto , Mesoscopic Quantum Optics, New York: Wiley , 1999
  22. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine , Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley , 1995
  23. A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  24. J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Baba , “ Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system ,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. ,   3 , 808 – 811 ( 1997 )
    [Crossref]
  26. T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref]

2005 (4)

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 111102 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Optics Lett.   30 , 982 – 984 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal resonator arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 161 – 163 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

K. L. Lear , et. al. “ Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ”, Advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in series OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics   15 , 69 – 74 ( 1997 )

T. Baba , “ Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system ,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. ,   3 , 808 – 811 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

Purcell , “ Spontaneous emission Probabilities at Radio Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev.   69 , 681 ( 1946 )

Altug, H.

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 111102 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Optics Lett.   30 , 982 – 984 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal resonator arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 161 – 163 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

T. Baba , “ Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system ,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. ,   3 , 808 – 811 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Baek, J.H.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumenthal, D. J.

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Brennan, T. M.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Cao, J.R.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Chand, N.

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

Choi, S.J.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Chu, S. N. G.

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine , Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley , 1995

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine , Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley , 1995

Danner, A.J.

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P.D.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davanco, M.

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

Dobabalapur, A.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Florez, L.T.

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Gentner, J.

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Gogna, P.

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Goldstein, L.

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Gourley, P.L.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Hadley, G. R.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Hammons, B. E.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Happ, T. D.

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Harbison, J. P.

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Imada, M.

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

A. Imamoglu and Y. Yamamoto , Mesoscopic Quantum Optics, New York: Wiley , 1999

Ishii, S.

A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Jewell, J.L.

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

John, S.

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, Y.G.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, M.

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.B.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.H.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.H.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lear, K. L.

K. L. Lear , et. al. “ Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ”, Advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in series OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics   15 , 69 – 74 ( 1997 )

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Lee, J. C.

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Lee, P.T.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Lee, R.K.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.H.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, A.

A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

O,Brien, J. D.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orenstein, M.

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purcell,

Purcell , “ Spontaneous emission Probabilities at Radio Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev.   69 , 681 ( 1946 )

Qiu, Y.

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Qui, Y.

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Raftery, J. J.

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Seassal, C.

C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Stoofel, N. G.

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Timko, A.

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Tokuda, T.

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

van der Ziel, J. P.

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

Vawter, G. A.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Optics Lett.   30 , 982 – 984 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 111102 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal resonator arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 161 – 163 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Warren, M. E.

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

Wullert, J.

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

Xing, A.

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

A. Imamoglu and Y. Yamamoto , Mesoscopic Quantum Optics, New York: Wiley , 1999

Yang, J.K.

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Zydzik, G. J.

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

Advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in series OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (1)

K. L. Lear , et. al. “ Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ”, Advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in series OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics   15 , 69 – 74 ( 1997 )

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. D. Happ , M. Kamp , A. Forchel , J. Gentner , and L. Goldstein , “ Two-dimensioanl photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode ,” App. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

A. Nakagawa , S. Ishii , and T. Baba , “ Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 041112 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

M. Loncar , T. Yoshie , A. Scherer , P. Gogna , and Y. Qiu , “ Low-threshold photonic crystal laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 2680 – 2682 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qui , “ High Frequency Oscillation in Photonic Crystal nanolasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3543 – 3545 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

M. Meier , A. Mekis , A. Dobabalapur , A. Timko , R. E. Slusher , J. D. Joannopoulos , and O. Nalamasu , “ Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 7 – 9 , ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

C. Monat , C. Seassal , and X. Letartre , et. al. “ InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 5102 – 5104 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

M. Imada , S. Noda , A. Chutinan , and T. Tokuda , “ Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 316 – 318 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal resonator arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 161 – 163 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

D. G. Deppe , J. P. van der Ziel , N. Chand , G. J. Zydzik , and S. N. G. Chu , “ Phase-coupled two-dimensional Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   56 , 2089 – 2091 ( 1990 )
[Crossref]

M. Orenstein , E. Kapon , N. G. Stoofel , J. P. Harbison , and J. Wullert , “ Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   58 , 804 – 806 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

M. E. Warren , P.L. Gourley , G. R. Hadley , G. A. Vawter , T. M. Brennan , B. E. Hammons , and K. L. Lear , “ On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   61 , 1484 – 1486 ( 1992 )
[Crossref]

J. J. Raftery , A.J. Danner , J. C. Lee , and K. D. Choquette , “ Coherent coupling of two-dimensional arrays of defect cavities in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201104 -( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 111102 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y.H. Lee , and L.T. Florez , “ Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1332 – 1346 ( 1991 )
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Baba , “ Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system ,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. ,   3 , 808 – 811 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

J. Vacuum Science B (2)

A. Xing , M. Davanco , D. J. Blumenthal , and E. Hu , “ Fabrication of InP-based photonic crystal membrane ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   22 70 – 73 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

J.R. Cao , P.T. Lee , S.J. Choi , R. Shafiiha , S.J. Choi , J. D. O,Brien , and P. D. Dapkus , “ Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers ,” J. Vacuum Science B ,   20 , 618 – 621 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Optics Lett. (1)

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic , “ Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays ,” Optics Lett.   30 , 982 – 984 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Purcell , “ Spontaneous emission Probabilities at Radio Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev.   69 , 681 ( 1946 )

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

O. Painter , R.K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien , P.D. Dapkus , and I. Kim , “ Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser ,” Science   284 , 1819 – 1821 ( 1999 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Noda , M. Yokoyama , M. Imada , A. Chutinan , and M. Mochizuki , “ Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design ,” Science   293 , 1123 – 1125 ( 2001 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Park , S.H. Kim , S.H. Kwon , Y.G. Ju , J.K. Yang , J.H. Baek , S.B. Kim , and Y.H. Lee , “ Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser ,” Science   305 , 1444 – 14447 ( 2004 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Imamoglu and Y. Yamamoto , Mesoscopic Quantum Optics, New York: Wiley , 1999

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine , Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley , 1995

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM pictures of a fabricated single PC cavity laser and a coupled PC cavity array laser (b) Simulated electric field amplitude of the coupled cavity array quadrupole mode at the Γ-point in the middle of the slab.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectrum of the coupled cavity array laser with a peak at 1534nm. The PC hole radius in this structure is about 192nm. The inset on the left shows the zoomed-in portion of the spectrum fitted with a Lorentzian (green dashed curve) of 0.23nm linewidth. The inset on the right shows the QW photoluminescence from unprocessed wafer (QWs shown on the SEM image).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The IR-camera image (left) and the simulated time-averaged Poynting vector in the vertical direction (right) of the lasing mode for a single cavity laser. The size of the structure is indicated by the dashed square. (b) The same for a coupled cavity array laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

LL-curves of the single PC cavity and the coupled PC cavity array laser. The inset shows a magnified curve for the single PC cavity

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power as a function of the input pump power and the number of coupled cavities in the array, analyzed using rate equations and our experimental conditions (parameters given in Table 2). Single cavity results are shown in red and coupled cavity array laser results in blue. Coupled cavity laser has 10 times larger Va than single cavity laser, while the mode volume Vmode increases relative to that of a single cavity laser by a factor of 10 (diamond), 40 (circle) and 70 (square). By comparing theoretical analysis shown here with our experimental results shown in Fig. 4, we conclude that majority of 81 PC cavities in the array are lasing together in our laser.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table1. Averaged values of the measured thresholds and DQEs of several single cavity and coupled cavity lasers and their ratios. Also shown are the β-factor ranges obtained by fitting laser rate equations to the measured LL-curves.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Typical parameters for InGaAsP-InP MQWs that are used in solving rate equation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L in , th = ħ ω p V a η [ 1 τ p V mod e β N t h τ r + N t h τ r ]
DQE = η ω l ω p V mod e V a 1 τ mirror 1 Γ G ( N t h )
Γ G ( N t h ) = 1 τ p β N t h V mod e τ r .
dN dt = η L in ħ ω p V a ( N τ r + N τ n r ) Γ G ( N ) P
dP dt = Γ G ( N ) P + β N τ r P τ p

Metrics