Abstract

Coupling light from an optical fibre to small optical waveguides is particularly problematic in semiconductors, since the refractive index of the silica fibre is very different from that of a semiconductor waveguide. There have been several published methods of achieving such coupling, but none are sufficiently efficient whilst being robust enough for commercial applications. In this paper experimental results of our approach called a Dual-Grating Assisted Directional Coupler, are presented. The principle of coupling by this novel method has been successfully demonstrated, and a coupling efficiency of 55% measured.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Coupling to nanophotonic waveguides using a dual grating-assisted directional coupler,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 41–48 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

2003 (5)

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express 11, 3555–3561 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3555.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibres and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, ”Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2927.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

W. Huang and J. Hong, “Transfer matrix approach based on local normal modes for coupled waveguides with periodic perturbation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1367–1375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. S. Nguyen, S. Burton, and P. Pan, “The variation of physical properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride and oxynitride with their compositions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 2348–2353 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benyattou, T.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Boyraz, O.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, S.

V. S. Nguyen, S. Burton, and P. Pan, “The variation of physical properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride and oxynitride with their compositions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 2348–2353 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. K.

Chan, S. P.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12, 4261–4267 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Congdon, P.

Dillon, T.

Evans, G. A.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J. M.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Fijol, J. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fike, E. E.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frish, M. B.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbody, D.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregoire, J.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Hak, D.

Heitzmann, M.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Hong, J.

W. Huang and J. Hong, “Transfer matrix approach based on local normal modes for coupled waveguides with periodic perturbation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1367–1375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

W. Huang and J. Hong, “Transfer matrix approach based on local normal modes for coupled waveguides with periodic perturbation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1367–1375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, S. A.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keating, P. B.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

LeBlanc, J. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low-loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 157–170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. T.

Lin, C.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12, 4261–4267 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Masanovic, G. Z.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Coupling to nanophotonic waveguides using a dual grating-assisted directional coupler,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 41–48 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibres and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Moll, N.

Morita, H.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Nguyen, V. S.

V. S. Nguyen, S. Burton, and P. Pan, “The variation of physical properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride and oxynitride with their compositions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 2348–2353 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Pan, P.

V. S. Nguyen, S. Burton, and P. Pan, “The variation of physical properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride and oxynitride with their compositions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 2348–2353 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, L.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12, 4261–4267 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Coupling to nanophotonic waveguides using a dual grating-assisted directional coupler,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 41–48 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibres and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, “Optimal Design of grating-assisted directional couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 973–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Png, C. E.

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Reed, G. T.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Coupling to nanophotonic waveguides using a dual grating-assisted directional coupler,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 41–48 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Png, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, and G. T. Reed, “Optical phase modulators for MHz and GHz modulation in silicon-on-insulator (SOI),” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1573–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibres and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, N.

R. Orobtchouk, N. Schnell, T. Benyattou, J. Gregoire, S. Lardenois, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fedeli, “New ARROW optical coupler for optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Interconnect Technology (2003), pp 233–235.

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, N.-H.

Sure, A.

Takahashi, J.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, M. Notomi, I. Yokohama, T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, and H. Morita, “SOI-based photonic crystal line defect waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 4870, 324–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dual grating-assisted directional coupler in SOI [13]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

‘Double’ DGADC configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical SEM micrograph of a fabricated DGADC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical output from a ‘double’ DGADC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling efficiency of DGADC can be as high as 55% and resonant peak position can be changed for different grating periods still achieving high efficiency.

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