Abstract

We have analyzed the combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflections on the performance of counter-pumped Raman amplified systems. The required level of pump-intensity noise was evaluated for negligible enhancement of multi-path interference (MPI). We have also investigated the enhancement of pump-to-signal crosstalk caused by the reflections occurring within transmission fiber. We found that a high reflection (larger than -20 dB) within effective length of fiber could increase the effect of pump-to-signal crosstalk even for the counter-pumped Raman amplifiers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, and R. M. Jopson, �??Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, �??Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
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  5. J. Bromage, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, �??Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,�?? in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication 2002, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 119-120.
  6. A. Artamonov, V. Smokovdin, M. Kleshov, S. A. E. Lewis, and S.V. Chernikov, �??Enhancement of double Rayleigh scattering by pump intensity noise in fiber Raman amplifiers,�?? in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication 2002, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 186.
  7. C. H. Kim, "System impairment caused by the combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in Raman amplified system," Electron. Lett. 41, 661-662 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. H. Kim, "System impairment caused by the combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in Raman amplified system," Electron. Lett. 41, 661-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, and R. M. Jopson, �??Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

OFC 2002

J. Bromage, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, �??Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,�?? in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication 2002, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 119-120.

A. Artamonov, V. Smokovdin, M. Kleshov, S. A. E. Lewis, and S.V. Chernikov, �??Enhancement of double Rayleigh scattering by pump intensity noise in fiber Raman amplifiers,�?? in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication 2002, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 186.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The calculated level of MPI as a function of fiber Raman gain. The level of pump-intensity noise was ranging from -10 dB/Hz to -90 dB/Hz. S is the Rayleigh backscatter capture coefficient, D is the chromatic dispersion of transmission fiber, L is the length of fiber, αs is the attenuation at the signal wavelength, and αp is the attenuation at the pump wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of discrete reflectance on pump-to-signal crosstalk for a counter-pumped Raman amplifier. L is the length of fiber, z′ is the reflection point, and R is the discrete reflectance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The calculated Q-penalties as a function of (a) reflectance, (b) reflection point and (c) Raman gain. G is the Raman gain, D is the chromatic dispersion of transmission fiber, L is the length of fiber, z′ is the reflection point, rp is the level of pump-intensity noise, αp , is the attenuation at the pump wavelength and R is the level of discrete reflectance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The calculated Q-penalty as a function of relative-intensity noise (RIN) of pump laser.

Equations (3)

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MPI ( L eff ) = ( S ln ( G R _ co G R _ ct ) α s L eff 2 ) 2 [ ( G R _ co G R _ ct ) e 2 α s L eff 1 ( ln ( G R _ co G R _ ct ) 2 α s L eff ) ]
r s = r p ln 2 ( G R ) ( V s L eff ) 2 ( α p V s ) 2 + ( 4 πf ) 2 ( 1 2 e α p L cos ( 4 πfT ) + e 2 α p L )
+ r p ln 2 ( G R ) ( V s L eff ) 2 ( α p V s ) 2 + ( 2 πf V s D Δ λ ) 2 R 2 e 2 α p ( L z ' ) ( 1 2 e α p ( L z ' ) cos ( 2 πf V s D ( T t ' ) ) + e 2 α p ( L z ' ) )

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