Abstract

We present the experimental demonstration of imaging by all-angle negative refraction in a 3D photonic crystal flat lens at microwave frequencies. The flat lens is made of a body-centered cubic photonic crystal (PhC) whose dispersion at the third band results in group velocity opposite to phase velocity for electromagnetic waves. We fabricated the photonic crystal following a layer-by-layer process. A microwave imaging system was established based on a vector network analyzer, where two dipoles work as the source and the detector separately. By scanning the volume around the lens with the detector dipole, we captured the image of the dipole source in both amplitude and phase. The image of two incoherent sources separated by 0.44λ showed two resolvable spots, which served to verify sub-wavelength resolution.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10,509(1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133–143 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and CM. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

X. Ao and S. He, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal of negative refraction achieved by interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2542–2544(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352–2354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-dormain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190(2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and CM. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10,509(1968).
[CrossRef]

Ao, X.

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C.T.

K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and CM. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derov, J.S.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J.W.

J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, pp57–58, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1996.

He, S.

Ho, K.M.

K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and CM. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A.J.

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.D.

C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352–2354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-dormain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190(2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Johson, S.G.

C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352–2354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.T.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, CA. Schuetz, and D.W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express,  13, 2007–2012 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI =OPEX-13-6-2007
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352–2354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Narimanov, E.E.

Nemat-Nasser, S.C.

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W.J.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parimi, P.V.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J.B.

C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352–2354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V.A.

Prather, D.W.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, CA. Schuetz, and D.W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express,  13, 2007–2012 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI =OPEX-13-6-2007
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Robbins, D.J.

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Schneider, G.J.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Schuetz, C.A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Schuetz, CA.

Schultz, S.

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R.A.

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, CA. Schuetz, and D.W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express,  13, 2007–2012 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI =OPEX-13-6-2007
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, “Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Smith, D.R.

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokoloff, J.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, CM.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and CM. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and CM. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W.J.

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, and W.J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096–10099 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V.G.

V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10,509(1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D.C.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodo, P.

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngs, I.

J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (393 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (307 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Conventional cubic cell of the bcc structure. (b) Three-dimensional PhC fabricated layer-by-layer (20 layers in total). Note that (101) plane works as the flat lens surface, so the lattice orientation has rotated 45° surrounding vertical axis. (c) Band structure of the bcc lattice photonic crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for acquiring three-dimensional field distribution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude distributions changing with the frequency (multimedia movie, 392KB).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image of a microwave dipole achieved through the 3D PhC flat lens at image distance, d i=12mm. (b)(c). The image size full width at half maximum (FWHM) is found to be 9mm×7mm. The working frequency is f=16.4GHz (λ=18.3mm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured amplitude distribution. The amplitude scale on the source side varies from -41 dB (yellow) to -80 dB (black), and on the image side from -49 dB to -80 dB. (b) Phase distribution in vertical plane.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The amplitude changing along z-axis for 16.4GHz (multimedia movie, 392KB).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) The image (intensity) of two sources from two different vector network analyzers. (b) The intensity distribution along the white line marked on (a). The image shows two resolvable spots with distance 8mm (0.44λ,λ=18.3mm).

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