Abstract

Thermal load in Nd3+ doped vanadate crystals with and without laser action at 1.34 µm is investigated. Excited state absorption contributes significantly to a fractional thermal loading as well as quantum defect.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Di lieto, P. Minguzzi, A. Piratsu, S. Sanguinetti, and V. Magni, �??A 7-W diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser at 1.34 μm,�?? Appl. Phys. B 75, 463-466 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Jun Liao, Jing-Liang He, Hui Liu, Hui-Tian Wang, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, �??Simultaneous generation of red, green, and blue quasi-continuous-wave coherent radiation based on multiple quasi-phase-matched interactions from a single, aperiodically-poled LiTaO3,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3159-3161 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Jensen, V.G. Ostroumov, J.-P Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, �??Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diode-Laser-Pumped Nd:GdVO4,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 58, 373-379 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, �??Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Hamish Ogilvy, Michael J. Withford, Peter Dekker and James A. Piper, �??Efficient diode double-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser opelating at 1342 nm,�?? Opt. Exp. 11, 2411-2415 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2411">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2411</a>
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Minassian and M. J. Damzen, �??20 W bounce geometry diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system at 1342 nm,�?? Opt. Commun. 230, 191-195 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Fornasiero, S. Kuck, T. Jensen. G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, �??Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part2: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 67, 549-553 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Justin L. Blows, Takashige Omatsu, Judith Dawes, Helen Pask, and Mitsuhiro Tateda, �??Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 1727-1729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Justin L. Blows, Judith M. Dawes, Takashige Omatsu, �??Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901-2906 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. CASIX web site, <a href="http://www.casix.com/product/Laser_Crystal_NdYVO4.htm">http://www.casix.com/product/Laser_Crystal_NdYVO4.htm</a>
  11. Hong Yuan Shen, Xian Lin Meng, Ge Zhang, Jian Jie Qin, Wen Liu, Li Zhu, Cheng Hui Huang, Lin Xiong Huang, and Ming Wei, �??Sellmeier�??s equation and the expression of the thermal refractive-index coefficient for a Nd0.007Gd0.993VO4 crystal,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 955-960 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. S. Lomheim, and L. G. DeShazer, �??Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Xia, H. D. Jiang, W. Q. Zheng, G. W. Lu, X. L. Meng, H. J. Zhang. X. S. Liu, L. Zhu, and J. Y. Wang, �??Optical parameters and luminescent properties of Nd:GdVO4, �?? J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4433-4436 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J. �??P. Meyn, and G. Huber, �??Study of luminescence concentration quenching and nergy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052-1060 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. CASTECH web site, <a href="http://www.castech-us.com/ndgdvo4.htm">http://www.castech-us.com/ndgdvo4.htm</a>
  16. Takayo Ogawa, Yoshiharu Urata, Satoshi Wada, Koichi Onodera, Hiroshi Machida, Hideaki Sagae, Mikio Higuchi, and Kohei Kodaira, �??Efficient laser performance of Nd:GdVO4 crystas grown by the floating method,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 2333-2335 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. L. Dexter �??A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,�?? J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Chenlin Du, Lianjie Qin, Xianlin Meng, Guibao Xu, Zhengping Wang, Xinguang Xu, Li Zhu, Bingchao Xu, and Zongshu Shao, �??High-power Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 μm end-pumped by laser-diode-array,�?? Opt. Commun. 212, 177-181 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, �??Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134-5137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. Di lieto, P. Minguzzi, A. Piratsu, S. Sanguinetti, and V. Magni, �??A 7-W diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser at 1.34 μm,�?? Appl. Phys. B 75, 463-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V.G. Ostroumov, J.-P Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, �??Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diode-Laser-Pumped Nd:GdVO4,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, S. Kuck, T. Jensen. G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, �??Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part2: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 67, 549-553 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Jun Liao, Jing-Liang He, Hui Liu, Hui-Tian Wang, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, �??Simultaneous generation of red, green, and blue quasi-continuous-wave coherent radiation based on multiple quasi-phase-matched interactions from a single, aperiodically-poled LiTaO3,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3159-3161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

Justin L. Blows, Takashige Omatsu, Judith Dawes, Helen Pask, and Mitsuhiro Tateda, �??Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 1727-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Justin L. Blows, Judith M. Dawes, Takashige Omatsu, �??Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901-2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, �??Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342nm in Nd:YVO4,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907-4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, �??Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134-5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Lomheim, and L. G. DeShazer, �??Optical-absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal yttrium orthovanadate,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517-5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, H. D. Jiang, W. Q. Zheng, G. W. Lu, X. L. Meng, H. J. Zhang. X. S. Liu, L. Zhu, and J. Y. Wang, �??Optical parameters and luminescent properties of Nd:GdVO4, �?? J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4433-4436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter �??A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,�?? J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Minassian and M. J. Damzen, �??20 W bounce geometry diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system at 1342 nm,�?? Opt. Commun. 230, 191-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chenlin Du, Lianjie Qin, Xianlin Meng, Guibao Xu, Zhengping Wang, Xinguang Xu, Li Zhu, Bingchao Xu, and Zongshu Shao, �??High-power Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 μm end-pumped by laser-diode-array,�?? Opt. Commun. 212, 177-181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Hamish Ogilvy, Michael J. Withford, Peter Dekker and James A. Piper, �??Efficient diode double-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser opelating at 1342 nm,�?? Opt. Exp. 11, 2411-2415 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2411">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2411</a>
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

CASTECH web site, <a href="http://www.castech-us.com/ndgdvo4.htm">http://www.castech-us.com/ndgdvo4.htm</a>

CASIX web site, <a href="http://www.casix.com/product/Laser_Crystal_NdYVO4.htm">http://www.casix.com/product/Laser_Crystal_NdYVO4.htm</a>

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of laser system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser output power

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for thermal lens measurement.;L1 and L2 are lenses with a focal length of 300 mm. And they form an imaging optics, and produce an image of a crystal face onto a CCD camera. The distance between the crystal and L1 is 300 mm. The distance between L2 and a CCD camera is 300 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fringes (a) with and (b) without lasing at 8 W of absorbed power

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Thermal lens power of (a) Nd:YVO4 and (b) Nd:GdVO4 crystal as a function of absorbed power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Laser output of Nd:YVO4 crystal with different cavity length

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fluorescence spectrum in visible region with 8 W absorbed power (Nd:YVO4)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Fluorescence intensity which correspond to 4G7/24I11/2 radiative transition as a function of absorbed power (Nd:YVO4)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fluorescence lifetime as a function of Nd ions concentration

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = 2 a 2 k ,
β = 1 τ f 1 τ rad 1 τ f .
η non = 1 η q ( 1 β ) λ p λ f ,
N u η q P pump c ( σ e + σ ESA ) N l ,
η lasing = 1 c σ e N u P pump N l λ p λ l = 1 η q ( λ p λ l ) · σ e σ e + σ ESA ,
α = η lasing η non = 1 η q ( λ p λ l ) · σ e σ e + σ ESA 1 η q ( 1 β ) λ p λ f .

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