Abstract

Plasma and a cavitation bubble develop at the site of laser-induced breakdown in water. Their formation and the propagation of the shock wave were monitored by a beam-deflection probe and an arm-compensated interferometer. The interferometer part of the setup was used to determine the relative position of the laser-induced breakdown. The time-of-flight data from the breakdown site to the probe beam yielded the velocity, and from the velocity the shock-wave pressure amplitudes were calculated. Two regions were found where the pressure decays with different exponents, pointing to a strong attenuation mechanism in the initial phase of the shock-wave propagation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Vogel and W. Lauterborn, “Time resolved particle image velocimetry used in the investigation of cavitation bubble dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1869–1876 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4092–4099 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Billotte and G. Berdeuax, “Adverse clinical consequences of neodymium:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2064–2071 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. K. Fallor and R. H. Hoft, “Intraocular lens damage associated with posterior capsulotomy: a comparison of intraocular lens designs and four different Nd:YAG laser instruments,” Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J.,  11, 564–567 (1985).
  9. J. Diaci, “Response function of the laser-beam deflection probe for detection of spherical acoustic-waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5306–5310 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Diaci and J. Možina, “Measurement of energy conversion efficiency during laser ablation by a multiple laser beam deflection probe,” Ultrasonics 34, 523–526 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.
  12. R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, “Optical remote measurement of ultrasound,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139–R168 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Billotte and G. Berdeuax, “Adverse clinical consequences of neodymium:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2064–2071 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, “Optical remote measurement of ultrasound,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139–R168 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4092–4099 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Diaci and J. Možina, “Measurement of energy conversion efficiency during laser ablation by a multiple laser beam deflection probe,” Ultrasonics 34, 523–526 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Diaci, “Response function of the laser-beam deflection probe for detection of spherical acoustic-waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5306–5310 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

M. K. Fallor and R. H. Hoft, “Intraocular lens damage associated with posterior capsulotomy: a comparison of intraocular lens designs and four different Nd:YAG laser instruments,” Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J.,  11, 564–567 (1985).

Apple, D. J.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aucliff, D. J. Mc.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babnik, A.

R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.

Barrett, R. P.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berdeuax, G.

C. Billotte and G. Berdeuax, “Adverse clinical consequences of neodymium:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2064–2071 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billotte, C.

C. Billotte and G. Berdeuax, “Adverse clinical consequences of neodymium:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2064–2071 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dewhurst, R. J.

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, “Optical remote measurement of ultrasound,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139–R168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Diaci, J.

J. Diaci and J. Možina, “Measurement of energy conversion efficiency during laser ablation by a multiple laser beam deflection probe,” Ultrasonics 34, 523–526 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Diaci, “Response function of the laser-beam deflection probe for detection of spherical acoustic-waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5306–5310 (1992).
[Crossref]

Doukas, A. G.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliott, D.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallor, M. K.

M. K. Fallor and R. H. Hoft, “Intraocular lens damage associated with posterior capsulotomy: a comparison of intraocular lens designs and four different Nd:YAG laser instruments,” Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J.,  11, 564–567 (1985).

Flotte, T. J.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hazlett, L. D.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoft, R. H.

M. K. Fallor and R. H. Hoft, “Intraocular lens damage associated with posterior capsulotomy: a comparison of intraocular lens designs and four different Nd:YAG laser instruments,” Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J.,  11, 564–567 (1985).

Kivela, T.

P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, R. J.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauterborn, W.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
[Crossref]

McDermott, M. L.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Možina, J.

J. Diaci and J. Možina, “Measurement of energy conversion efficiency during laser ablation by a multiple laser beam deflection probe,” Ultrasonics 34, 523–526 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.

Newland, T. J.

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noack, J.

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4092–4099 (1998).
[Crossref]

Noojin, G. D.

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

Panjan, I.

R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[Crossref]

Petkovšek, R.

R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.

Psaltis, D.

Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ranta, P.

P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockwell, B. A.

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, “Optical remote measurement of ultrasound,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139–R168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Steckman, G. J.

Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tommila, P.

P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Single-shot spatially resolved characterization of laser-induced shock waves in water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4092–4099 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel and W. Lauterborn, “Time resolved particle image velocimetry used in the investigation of cavitation bubble dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1869–1876 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J. (1)

M. K. Fallor and R. H. Hoft, “Intraocular lens damage associated with posterior capsulotomy: a comparison of intraocular lens designs and four different Nd:YAG laser instruments,” Am. Intraocul. Implant Soc. J.,  11, 564–567 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Liu, G. J. Steckman, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic recording of fast phenomena,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 731–733 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488–7495 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (3)

P. Ranta, P. Tommila, and T. Kivela, “Retinal breaks and detachment after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy - Five-year incidence in a prospective cohort,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 58–66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Billotte and G. Berdeuax, “Adverse clinical consequences of neodymium:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2064–2071 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Newland, M. L. McDermott, D. Eliott, L. D. Hazlett, D. J. Apple, R. J. Lambert, and R. P. Barrett, “Experimental neodymium:YAG laser damage to acrylic, poly(methyl methacrilate), and silicone intraocular lens materials,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 25, 72–76 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, “Optical remote measurement of ultrasound,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139–R168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Diaci, “Response function of the laser-beam deflection probe for detection of spherical acoustic-waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5306–5310 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ultrasonics (1)

J. Diaci and J. Možina, “Measurement of energy conversion efficiency during laser ablation by a multiple laser beam deflection probe,” Ultrasonics 34, 523–526 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

A. G. Doukas, D. J. Mc. Aucliff, and T. J. Flotte, “Biological effects of laser-induced shock waves: Structural and functional cell damage in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137–146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Petkovšek, I. Panjan, A. Babnik, and J. Možina “Optodynamic analysis of the microdrilling process,” M. Geiger and A. Otto, eds., Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 4 : proceedings of the 4th LANE 2004, (Meisenbach, Bamberg, 2004), pp. 709–716.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. A Nd:YAG laser was used to induce the breakdown in water. A He-Ne laser and a quadrant diode with appropriate electronics represent the beam-deflection probe; another He-Ne laser together with control electronics was used in the compensated Michelson interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical optodynamic responses of the beam-deflection probe (BDP) with different horizontal scales (a) and (b). They were used for determinations of the time-of-flight for the shock wave and the boundary of the cavitation bubble. Every tenth signal trace is shown, corresponding to a vertical displacement of 500 µm between the neighboring traces. The traces are approximately symmetrically distributed with respect to the LIB center. Signals from the compensated Michelson interferometer (MI), from which the relative positions of the LIB region are determined is also shown (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-dimensional time-of-flight diagrams for shock wave (a) with contour spacing 30 ns, and cavitation bubble (b) with contour spacing 2 µs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental shock-wave velocity (a) and pressure amplitude (b) in dependence on the distance from the LIB center (note the log scale). The velocity was obtained from of the time-of-flight measurements. The velocity data were smoothed by assuming that velocity decreases with distance from LIB site. Pressure was determined from velocity data using Eq.(1).

Equations (1)

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p s = c 1 ρ 0 v s ( 10 ( v s c 0 ) c 2 1 )

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