Abstract

We propose a novel scheme in which Yb3+ codoping and a laser cavity are introduced in Tm3+ doped fiber to achieve efficient S-band optical amplification with a 980 nm pump source. This scheme makes it possible for conventional 980 nm pump sources for Er3+ doped fiber amplifiers to be used for S-band Tm3+ doped fiber amplifiers (TDFAs). By introducing a laser cavity into an amplifier, an internally generated pump from Yb3+ at a desirable wavelength for pumping Tm3+ could be produced. We establish and analyze, for the first time to our knowledge, a new theoretical model that takes into consideration both the internal lasing operation inside the optical amplification process and the energy transfer between the Tm3+ and the Yb3+ ions in TDFAs. Various situations such as Tm3+ doping concentration and cavity reflectivity have been investigated. The results show that high optical gain and high pump efficiency can be achieved by use of 980 nm sources. With a laser cavity of 1050 nm in Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped fiber, for example, it is possible to achieve high optical gain of greater than 20 dB, a noise figure of approximately 5 dB in the wavelength range from 1450 to 1480 nm with a 0.3 W power at 980 nm pump source.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Aozasa, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, K. Hoshino, K. Kobayashi, and M. Shimizu, �??Tm-doped fiber amplifiers for 1470-nm-band WDM signals,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1331�??1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, and W. Margulis, "Characterization of efficient dual-wavelength (1050 + 800 nm) pumping scheme for thulium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200�??202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, and T. Georges, �??High-efficiency ytterbium-doped fluoride fiber laser,�?? J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 270�??273 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, �??Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,�?? Nature 404, 262�??264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, �??Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fiber amplifiers,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201�??212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Communication Conference (1)

W. J. Lee, B. Min, J. Park, and N. Park, �??Study on the pumping wavelength dependency of S-band fluoride based thulium doped fiber amplifiers,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2001), pages TuQ4-1�??TuQ4-3.

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, R. Moncorge, and A. M. Tkachuk, �??Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,�?? Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280�??5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. S. Gomes, �??Recent progress in thulium doped fiber amplifiers,�?? in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices VII, S. Jiang and J. Lucas, eds, Proc. SPIE 4990, 1�??10 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallée, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, �??Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm,�?? in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, M. Saad and J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 125�??135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a TDFA with an internal laser cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy levels of Tm 3+ and Yb 3+ and pump.3. Results and discussion

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distributed gain along the fiber with a different cavity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral gain versus cavity length.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral gain under different pump power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral gain and NF of the amplifier with different Tm 3+ concentration.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral gain versus reflectivity of a laser cavity at 1050 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spectral gain and NF of two different lasing wavelengths: 1050 and1064 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Gain and NF of codoped amplifier and TDFA pumped by an Yb3+ doped fiber laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Used for the Numerical Simulations

Equations (15)

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d N TI d t = N T 2 A T 21 nr + N T 3 ( W T 31 + A T 31 r ) K YT 2 N T 1 N Y 1 N T 1 ( W T 13 + W T 14 + A T 10 r )
d N T 2 d t = N T 0 W T 02 N T 2 A T 21 nr + N T 5 A T 52 r + K YT 1 N T 0 N Y 1
d N T 3 d t = N T 1 W T 13 + N T 4 A T 43 nr N T 3 ( W T 31 + W T 35 + A T 30 r )
d N T 4 d t = N T 1 W T 14 N T 4 A T 43 nr + K YT 2 N T 1 N Y 1
d N T 5 d t = N T 3 W T 35 N T 5 ( A T 5 0 r + A T 5 2 r )
N T = N T 0 + N T 1 + N T 2 + N T 3 + N T 4 + N T 5
d N Y 1 d t = N Y 0 W Y 01 N Y 0 W Y 10 K YT 1 N T 0 N Y 1 K YT 2 N T 1 N Y 1 N Y 1 τ 1
N Y = N Y 0 + N Y 1 .
W ij ( z ) = 0 λ Γ ( λ ) σ ij ( P λ + ( z , λ ) + P λ ( z , λ ) ) h c π b 2 d λ
Γ ( λ ) = 0 E ( r , φ , λ ) 2 N ( r ) r d r N Tm 0 E ( r , φ , λ ) 2 r d r
d P ± ( λ ) d z = Γ ( λ ) P ± ( λ ) ij ( N i σ ij ( λ ) N j σ ji ( λ ) ) ± Γ ( λ ) ij 2 h ν ij Δ ν N i σ ij ( λ ) α P ± ( λ )
P pump ( z = 0 ) = P 0 ,
P s ( 0 ) = P s ,
P laser , + + ( z = 0 ) = R 1 P laser ( z = 0 ) ,
P laser ( z = L ) = R 2 P laser + ( z = L ) .

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