Abstract

Using numerical simulations, we show that cross-gain modulation between pairs of counter-propagating pulses within a semiconductor optical amplifier can be used to detect the range and reflectivity of a target, forming a compact time-of-flight laser ranger. The range is deduced from multiple contacts along the SOA. The SOA also provides gain to the optical pulses reflected off the target. A single external component is required to provide pulses into back of the SOA, with the front of the SOA being directly coupled to the target.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Bosch and M. Lescure, Selected papers on laser distance measurement, SPIE Milestone Series, MS115, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA (1995).
  3. A. Biernat and G. Kompa, “Powerful picosecond laser pulses enabling high-resolution laser radar,” J. Opt 29, 225–228 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Beheim and K. Frish, “Range finding using frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Optics 25, 1439–1442 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. J. Lowery and M. Premaratne, “Reduced component count optical delay discriminator using a semiconductor optical amplifier-detector,” Opt. Express 13, 290–295 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-290
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. J. Lowery “Active Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optoelectronic Devices-Advanced Simulation and Analysis, J. Piprek ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. J. Lowery “New inline wideband dynamic semiconductor laser amplifier model,” IEE Proceedings Part J. (Optoelectronics) 135, 242–250 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Biernat and G. Kompa, “Powerful picosecond laser pulses enabling high-resolution laser radar,” J. Opt 29, 225–228 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. J. Lowery “New inline wideband dynamic semiconductor laser amplifier model,” IEE Proceedings Part J. (Optoelectronics) 135, 242–250 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. Beheim and K. Frish, “Range finding using frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Optics 25, 1439–1442 (1986).
[Crossref]

Amann, M-C.

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Awad, E. S.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beheim, G.

G. Beheim and K. Frish, “Range finding using frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Optics 25, 1439–1442 (1986).
[Crossref]

Biernat, A.

A. Biernat and G. Kompa, “Powerful picosecond laser pulses enabling high-resolution laser radar,” J. Opt 29, 225–228 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bosch, T.

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Bosch and M. Lescure, Selected papers on laser distance measurement, SPIE Milestone Series, MS115, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA (1995).

Cho, P. S.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frish, K.

G. Beheim and K. Frish, “Range finding using frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Optics 25, 1439–1442 (1986).
[Crossref]

Goldhar, J.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

Kompa, G.

A. Biernat and G. Kompa, “Powerful picosecond laser pulses enabling high-resolution laser radar,” J. Opt 29, 225–228 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kostamovaara, J.

P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lescure, M.

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Bosch and M. Lescure, Selected papers on laser distance measurement, SPIE Milestone Series, MS115, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA (1995).

Li, T.

J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

Lowery, A. J.

A. J. Lowery and M. Premaratne, “Reduced component count optical delay discriminator using a semiconductor optical amplifier-detector,” Opt. Express 13, 290–295 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-290
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Lowery “New inline wideband dynamic semiconductor laser amplifier model,” IEE Proceedings Part J. (Optoelectronics) 135, 242–250 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. J. Lowery “Active Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optoelectronic Devices-Advanced Simulation and Analysis, J. Piprek ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2005).
[Crossref]

Maatta, K.

P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moulton, N.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

Myllylä, R.

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nishide, K-I

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Palojarvi, P.

P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
[Crossref]

Premaratne, M.

Richardson, C. J. K.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rioux, M.

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

Shinohara, S.

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sumi, M.

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

Takamiya, S.

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tian, D.

J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

Yoshida, H.

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Optics (1)

G. Beheim and K. Frish, “Range finding using frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Optics 25, 1439–1442 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEE Proceedings Part J. (Optoelectronics) (1)

A. J. Lowery “New inline wideband dynamic semiconductor laser amplifier model,” IEE Proceedings Part J. (Optoelectronics) 135, 242–250 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters (1)

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Letters 14, 396–398 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements (1)

P. Palojarvi, K. Maatta, and J. Kostamovaara, “Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar module with millimeter-level accuracy using full custom receiver and TDC ASICs,” IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurements 51, 1102–1108 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement (1)

S. Shinohara, H. Yoshida, K-I Nishide, and M. Sumi, “Compact and high-precision range finder with wide dynamic range and its application,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 41, 40–44 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt (1)

A. Biernat and G. Kompa, “Powerful picosecond laser pulses enabling high-resolution laser radar,” J. Opt 29, 225–228 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. K. Özdemir, S. Shinohara, S. Ito, S. Takamiya, and H. Yoshida, “Compact optical instrument for surface classification using self-mixing interference in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 38–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

M-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Semiconductor Science and Technology (1)

J. Jin, D. Tian, J. Shi, and T. Li, “Fabrication and complete characterization of polarization insensitive 1310 nm InGaAsP-InP quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Semiconductor Science and Technology 19, 120–126http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/sst/2004/00000019/00000001/art00020

Other (2)

A. J. Lowery “Active Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optoelectronic Devices-Advanced Simulation and Analysis, J. Piprek ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2005).
[Crossref]

T. Bosch and M. Lescure, Selected papers on laser distance measurement, SPIE Milestone Series, MS115, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA (1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed SOA-based ranging system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Powers throughout system using a 3-contact SOA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simplified schematic from VPIcomponentMaker™Active Photonics simulator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Differential output versus pulse delay for 7 reflectivities from 30 to 36 dB, 1-dB steps.

Fig.6.
Fig.6.

ffect of right facet reflectivity (zero left-facet reflectivity).

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