Abstract

We present an algorithm for calculating the field distribution in the focal region of stratified media which is fast and easy to implement. Using this algorithm we study the effect on the electric field distribution of an air gap separating a solid immersion lens and a sample, where we analyse the maximum distance for out-of-contact operation. Also, we study how the presence of a metallic substrate affects the field distribution in the focal region; the interference effects of the reflected field could be used as an alternative for 4Pi-microscopy.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Egner and S.W. Hell, �??Equivalence of the Huygens-Fresnel and Debye approach for the calculation of high aperture point-spread functions in the presence of refractive index mismatch,�?? J. Microsc. 193, 244-249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

R. Kant, �??Vector diffraction problem of focussing a category 1 aberrated wavefront though a multilayered lossless medium,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 51, 343-366 (2004).

P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard and P. Varga, �??Study of evanescent waves for transmission near-field microscopy,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1167-1183 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (4)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl and G. Leuchs, �??Focusing light to a tighter spot,�?? Opt. Commun. 179, 1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Egner, M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, �??Refractive index mismatch induced intensity and phase variations in fluorescence confocal, multiphoton and 4Pi-microscopy,�?? Opt. Commun. 153, 211-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, �??Axial imaging through an aberrating layer of water in confocal microscopy,�?? Opt. Commun. 88, 180-190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Helseth, �??Roles of polarization, phase and amplitude in solid immersion lens systems,�?? Opt. Commun. 191, 161-172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Paulus, P. Gay-Balmaz and O.J.F. Martin, �??Accurate and efficient computation of the Green�??s tensor for stratified media,�?? Phys. Rev. E 62, 5797-5807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, �??Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, �??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,�?? Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D.G. Flagello and T. Milster, �??3D Modeling of high numerical aperture imaging in thin films,�?? in Design, modeling, and control of laser beam optics, Y. Kohanzadeh, G.N. Lawrence, J.G. McCoy and H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE 1625, 246-276 (1992).

Topics in fluorescence spectroscopy (1)

S.W. Hell, �??Increasing the resolution of far-field fluorescence light microscopy by point-spread-function engineering,�?? in Topics in fluorescence spectroscopy, Vol. 5, J.R. Lakowicz ed. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1997), pp. 361-426.

Tr. Opt. Inst. Petrograd (1)

V.S. Ignatowsky, �??Diffraction by a lens of arbitrary aperture,�?? Tr. Opt. Inst. Petrograd 1(4), 1-36 (1919).

Other (3)

W. Welford, Aberrations of optical systems (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1986).

G. N. Watson, A treatise on the theory of Bessel functions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1966).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The art of scientific computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992).

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