Abstract

A protocol based on systematic experimental measurements to characterize the electro-optic behavior of chiral smectic liquid-crystal (LC) materials with V/W-shaped responses is presented. An experimental smectic LC material has been checked by use of this protocol. It has been found that results derived from this procedure permit a reasonable evaluation of the electro-optic performance of these LC materials as well as their capability to be used in high-end display applications.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Fukuda, “Pretransitional effect in AF-F switching: To suppress it or to enhance it, that is my question about AFLCDs,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference, Asia Display ’95 (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), Vol. S6 -1, pp. 61–64.
  2. J. Fünfschilling and M. Schadt, “Fast responding and highly multiplexible distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3877–3882 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).
  7. S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

2002 (1)

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. Fünfschilling and M. Schadt, “Fast responding and highly multiplexible distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3877–3882 (1989).
[Crossref]

Aoki, H.

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

Bardon, S.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bellini, T.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Buivydas, M.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. H.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clark, N. A.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coleman, D.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, A.

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Fukuda, “Pretransitional effect in AF-F switching: To suppress it or to enhance it, that is my question about AFLCDs,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference, Asia Display ’95 (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), Vol. S6 -1, pp. 61–64.

Fünfschilling, J.

J. Fünfschilling and M. Schadt, “Fast responding and highly multiplexible distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3877–3882 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gayo, J. L.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Gouda, F.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, N.

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, J. P. F.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Link, D. R.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maclennan, J. E.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakata, M.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ogura, J.

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

Otón, J. M.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Park, B.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

Quintana, X.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Rudquist, P.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

J. Fünfschilling and M. Schadt, “Fast responding and highly multiplexible distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3877–3882 (1989).
[Crossref]

Seomun, S. S.

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shao, R. F.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sirleto, L.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Takahashi, M.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, T.

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takanishi, Y.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

Toscano, C.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Urruchi, V.

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

Vij, J. K.

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wakai, H.

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

Walba, D. M.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. S. Seomun, J. K. Vij, N. Hayashi, T. Kato, and A. Fukuda, “Surface molecular alignment by in -plane anchoring in the cell showing the V-shaped switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 940–942 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Fünfschilling and M. Schadt, “Fast responding and highly multiplexible distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3877–3882 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Park, S. S. Seomun, M. Nakata, M. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Collective molecular motion during V-shaped switching in a smectic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1474–1481 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

A. Fukuda, S. S. Seomun, T. Takahashi, Y. Takanishi, and K. Ishikawa, “Tilting correlation in adjacent layers and possible thresholdless antiferroelectricity in SC*-like liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 303, 379–390 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Urruchi, J. M. Otón, C. Toscano, J. L. Gayo, X. Quintana, and L. Sirleto, “Reflect ive SLMs based on antiferroelectric and V-shape liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 543–551 (2002).

SID’97 Digest (1)

T. Yoshida, T. Tanaka, J. Ogura, H. Wakai, and H. Aoki, “A full-colour thresholdless antiferroelectric LCD exhibiting wide viewing angle with fast response time,” SID’97 Digest 18, 841–844 (1997).

SID’99 Digest (1)

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, R. F. Shao, D. Coleman, S. Bardon, D. R. Link, T. Bellini, J. E. Maclennan, D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, and X. H. Chen, “Unraveling the mystery of ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’: High -contrast analog electro-optics in chiral smectic-liquid crystal,” SID’99 Digest 28, 409–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Fukuda, “Pretransitional effect in AF-F switching: To suppress it or to enhance it, that is my question about AFLCDs,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference, Asia Display ’95 (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), Vol. S6 -1, pp. 61–64.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurement of the apparent tilt angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical transmission for different frequencies of the triangular waveform applied to the LC cell.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Voltage waveform and (b) optical transmission of the LC device in the time domain.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Driving waveform and (b) the gray scale obtained in the time domain.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Microscopic photographs of a generated gray scale.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of saturation pulse on the transmission memory of the LC device.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Triangular waveform applied to the cell and measured switching current, (b) polarization-voltage characteristic obtained, and (c) W-shaped optical transmission measured for the LC device studied.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Slot times and voltage levels of the waveform applied to the test cell to generate a gray scale.

Metrics