Abstract

We demonstrate the tapering of a photonic crystal fiber to achieve a microstructure pitch of less than 300 nm. We probe the tapered fiber in the transverse geometry to demonstrate the scaling of the photonic bandgaps associated with the microstructure. We show that the fundamental gap can be shifted down to the communications wavelengths, or even further to the visible spectrum. Our optical measurements are correlated with band structure calculations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).
  2. P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. A Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.
  7. BandSOLVE• 1.3 (RSoft Design Group, Inc., Ossining, NY) 2003.
  8. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B.C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L.W. Cahill, and J.D. Love, “Retaining and characterizing nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 98–104 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. FullWAVE• 3.0.4 (RSoft Design Group, Inc., Ossining, NY) 2003.

2003 (4)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

S.T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B.C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L.W. Cahill, and J.D. Love, “Retaining and characterizing nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 98–104 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Borelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahill, L.W.

Canning, J.

Chandalia, J. K.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Domachuk, P.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Eggleton, B. J.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, B.C.

Gu, M.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Huntington, S.T.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Katsifolis, J.

Kenny, R. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosinski, S. G.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Love, J.D.

Lyytikainen, K.

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. C.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Oakley, K. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P. S. J.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Stentz, A. J.

Straub, M.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Sumetsky, M.

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Xu, C.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zagari, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (1)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fiber,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (1)

H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, M. Sumetsky, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and B. J. Eggleton “Lateral thinking with photonic crystal fibers,” presented postdeadline at 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Tucson, AZ, USA, 26–30 Oct. 2003.

Science (1)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

BandSOLVE• 1.3 (RSoft Design Group, Inc., Ossining, NY) 2003.

FullWAVE• 3.0.4 (RSoft Design Group, Inc., Ossining, NY) 2003.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPEG (558 KB)     
» Media 2: MPEG (559 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a tapered PCF probed in a transverse direction to the axis of the taper. Inset shows SEM image of cleaved tapered PCF, with local outer diameter of 37.5µm and pitch <0.5 µm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Band diagram for triagonal lattice of air holes in silica with Λ=1.28 µm and hole diameter=0. 9 mm. Crosshatched regions indicate partial bandgaps along symmetry axes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM micrograph of untapered fiber (OD=108 µm, Λ=1.28 µm) and (b) tapered fiber: OD=47.1±0.6 µm, Λ ~0.56 µm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM micrographs of cleaved tapered fiber ends (a) OD=26.4±0.6µm, Λ~290 nm, (b) 21.3±0.3µm, Λ~217nm, and (c) OD=17.3±0.3µm, Λ~170nm

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical microscope image of tapered PCF illuminated by white light from the front; taper OD at the center is ~24 µm. The color of the first order Bragg reflected light varies monotonically to shorter wavelengths as the taper dimensions are reduced.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of transverse probing experiment

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Image of tapered fiber in experimental setup with PC microstructure oriented along Γ-M axis relative to optical axis. (b) Representative measured transmission spectrum for local taper OD=46.7±0.5 µm, with predicted TE and TM gaps superimposed.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured transmission spectra in tapered PCF transverse probing experiment.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(572 KB each) 2-D FDTD simulations corresponding to experiment with OD=43.2 µm and CW excitation for (a) 1100 nm (inside stop band) and (b) 1300 nm (outside stop band). [Media 1] [Media 2]

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Fundamental partial gap along the Γ-M axis plotted as a function of local taper OD. Square points indicate experimentally measured wavelength at the minimum of the transmission notch and bars indicate FWHM of the notch.

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