Abstract

We report the fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in calcium fluoride crystals by a focused near-IR 800 nm femtosecond laser. The diffraction efficiency and refractive index change were evaluated after femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent annealing. The maximum refractive index change was estimated to be 3.57×10-4. Optical absorption spectra, measured for the crystals before and after the laser irradiation and subsequent annealing, indicate that the absorbance increase after femtosecond laser irradiation and decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The mechanisms of refractive index change are proposed. The results may be useful for fabrication of three-dimensional integrated optics devices in the crystals.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, �??Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao and A. L. Gaeta, �??Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima and K. Hirao, �??Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567-69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, �??Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,�?? Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-47 (1969).

Chin. Phys. Lett.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao and C. Zhu, �??Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,�?? Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858-60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov and V. L. Lyutskanov, �??Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,�?? J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79-82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel and D. Basting, �??Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,�?? Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75-78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, �??Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,�?? Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 49-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa and J. Nishii, �??Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 325-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli and C. Smith, �??Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

A. Smakula, �??Color centers in Calcium Fluoride and Barium Fluoride Crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. 77, 408-409 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, �??Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,�?? Phys. Rev. B 9, 775-80 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Internal diffraction grating structures fabricated by scanning CaF2 crystals sample by a femtosecond laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency as function of diffraction spot orders.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diffraction efficiency and refractive index change as functions of annealing temperature for femtosecond laser irradiated CaF2 crystals sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectra of CaF2 crystals sample before (a) and after femtosecond laser irradiation (b), and subsequent annealing at 200°C (c) and 400°C (d) for 1 h.

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