Y. Hadjaret al., “Enhanced double Rayleigh backscattering in second order Raman amplification and system performance implications,” Opt. Commun. 229, 419–423 (2004).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and Y. H. Li, “Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 425–431 (2004).

[Crossref]

A. A. B. Tio, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Wide bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifier by using polarization-independent interferometric filter,” Opt. Express 11, 2991–2996 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-2991.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

M. Tang, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh backscattering,” Opt. Express 11, 1887–1893 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-16-1887.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, and M. Martinelli, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2224–2228 (2003).

[Crossref]

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple- wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2194–2202 (2003).

[Crossref]

S. Faralli and E. Di Pasquale, “Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804–806 (2003).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2163.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. Liu and Y. Li, “Optimal design of DFG-based wavelength conversion based on hybrid genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 11, 1677–1688 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1677.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Effective shooting algorithm and its application to fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 11, 1452–1461 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1452.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultrabroadband amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003)..

[Crossref]

M. Yanet al., “Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 948–950 (2001).

[Crossref]

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. H. Cheng, “A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 945–947 (2001).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. H. Cheng, “A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 945–947 (2001).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

S. Faralli and E. Di Pasquale, “Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804–806 (2003).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

S. Faralli and E. Di Pasquale, “Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804–806 (2003).

[Crossref]

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989).

M. Tang, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh backscattering,” Opt. Express 11, 1887–1893 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-16-1887.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

A. A. B. Tio, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Wide bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifier by using polarization-independent interferometric filter,” Opt. Express 11, 2991–2996 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-2991.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Hadjaret al., “Enhanced double Rayleigh backscattering in second order Raman amplification and system performance implications,” Opt. Commun. 229, 419–423 (2004).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Effective shooting algorithm and its application to fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 11, 1452–1461 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1452.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultrabroadband amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003)..

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2163.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design of fiber Raman amplifier based on hybrid genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, (to be published).

X. M. Liu and Y. H. Li, “Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 425–431 (2004).

[Crossref]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and Y. H. Li, “Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 425–431 (2004).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Effective shooting algorithm and its application to fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 11, 1452–1461 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1452.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2163.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultrabroadband amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003)..

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, “Powerful solution for simulating nonlinear coupled equations describing bidirectionally pumped broadband Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express. (this issue).

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design of fiber Raman amplifier based on hybrid genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, (to be published).

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. H. Cheng, “A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 945–947 (2001).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

S. W. Mahfoud, “Niching methods for genetic algorithms,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1995).

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

M. Tang, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh backscattering,” Opt. Express 11, 1887–1893 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-16-1887.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

A. A. B. Tio, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Wide bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifier by using polarization-independent interferometric filter,” Opt. Express 11, 2991–2996 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-2991.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. H. Cheng, “A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 945–947 (2001).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

M. Yanet al., “Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 948–950 (2001).

[Crossref]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

S. Faralli and E. Di Pasquale, “Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804–806 (2003).

[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskilden, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiBiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159–161 (1998).

[Crossref]

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. M. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206–208 (2003).

[Crossref]

M. Yanet al., “Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 948–950 (2001).

[Crossref]

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. H. Cheng, “A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 945–947 (2001).

[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530–532 (1999).

[Crossref]

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Numerical comparison between distributed and discrete amplification in a point-to-point 40 Gbit/s 40-WDM- based transmission system with three different modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 379–388 (2002).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultrabroadband amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003)..

[Crossref]

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, and M. Martinelli, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2224–2228 (2003).

[Crossref]

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple- wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2194–2202 (2003).

[Crossref]

Y. Hadjaret al., “Enhanced double Rayleigh backscattering in second order Raman amplification and system performance implications,” Opt. Commun. 229, 419–423 (2004).

[Crossref]

X. M. Liu and Y. H. Li, “Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 425–431 (2004).

[Crossref]

A. A. B. Tio, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Wide bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifier by using polarization-independent interferometric filter,” Opt. Express 11, 2991–2996 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-2991.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2163.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. Liu and Y. Li, “Optimal design of DFG-based wavelength conversion based on hybrid genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 11, 1677–1688 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1677.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Effective shooting algorithm and its application to fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 11, 1452–1461 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1452.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Tang, P. Shum, and Y. D. Gong, “Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh backscattering,” Opt. Express 11, 1887–1893 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-16-1887.

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design of fiber Raman amplifier based on hybrid genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, (to be published).

S. W. Mahfoud, “Niching methods for genetic algorithms,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1995).

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989).

X. M. Liu, “Powerful solution for simulating nonlinear coupled equations describing bidirectionally pumped broadband Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express. (this issue).