Abstract

We propose optimizing multifunctional multistage erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with complex structures by use of a genetic algorithm. With this method, we investigated optimum configurations of C- and L-band gain-flattened multistage EDFAs containing gain-flattening filters and high-loss interstage elements for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems in detail and compared the amplifiers with various kinds of configurations under different design criteria. With the guidance of optimization results, the roles of all the factors such as pumping schemes, pump-power allocation, component position, and insertion loss in the optimization of EDFAs have been studied, and useful guidelines for optimizations have been provided.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Wundke, �??Advanced amplifier design: physics and systems limitations,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2003), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003)
  2. J. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, �??Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 42-44 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yeniay and R. Gao, �??Single stage high power L-band EDFA with multiple C-band seeds,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002)
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992).
  5. C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, �??Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. G. Hodgkinson, �??Improved average power analysis technique for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1273-1275 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Lebref, B. Landousies, T. Georges, and E. Delevaque, �??Theoretical study of the gain equalization of a stabilized gain EDFA for WDM applications,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 766-770 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Tong, H. Wei, T. Li, and S. Jian, �??Optimal design of L-band EDFAs with high-loss interstage elements,�?? Opt. Commun. 224, 63-72 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Muro, P. N. Kean, S. J. Wilson, and J. Mun, �??Dependence of L-band amplifier efficiency on pump wavelength and amplifier design,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, �??Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 42-44 (1999)
[CrossRef]

T. G. Hodgkinson, �??Improved average power analysis technique for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1273-1275 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

R. Lebref, B. Landousies, T. Georges, and E. Delevaque, �??Theoretical study of the gain equalization of a stabilized gain EDFA for WDM applications,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 766-770 (1997)
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, �??Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Tong, H. Wei, T. Li, and S. Jian, �??Optimal design of L-band EDFAs with high-loss interstage elements,�?? Opt. Commun. 224, 63-72 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Communication Conference ( (3)

R. D. Muro, P. N. Kean, S. J. Wilson, and J. Mun, �??Dependence of L-band amplifier efficiency on pump wavelength and amplifier design,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000)

K. Wundke, �??Advanced amplifier design: physics and systems limitations,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2003), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003)

A. Yeniay and R. Gao, �??Single stage high power L-band EDFA with multiple C-band seeds,�?? in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of simulated results with measurement results for C (a) and L-band (b) EDFA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of L-band EDFA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationship between average gain (a) and fitness value (b) to L 1, L 2 for an L-band multistage EDFA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Trace of the optimization.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Use GA method to assemble the components to form EDFAs with optimized structure (IO module is for L-band EDFA, and GFF is for C-band EDFA only)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Some structures for C-band (a,b) and L-band (c,d) EDFA (input and output OI have not been included in the figure).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output optical spectra, gain and NF of the optimized C-band (a, c)(FB 980+1480nm pumped) and L-band (b, d) EDFA (FB dual-1480-nm pumped) with 12-dB interstage loss (NF<7).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Average Gain for optimized C-band (a), and L-band EDFAs (b) with six kinds of pumping schemes.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Position of components and total EDF length for optimized (C-band 980+1480nm pumped EDFAs (a),(b) and 980+1480 nm pumped EDFAs (a, b) and L-band dual-1480-nm pumped EDFAs (c, d)].

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Inversion ratio for different kinds of pumping schemes.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Gain and NF profile for FB 980+1480 nm pumped and FB dual-1480-nm pumped EDFA (NF<7).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

GFF for 980+1480 nm and dual-1480-nm pumping.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Average gain for optimized EDFA with fixed and adjustable pump power ratio [(a), C-band 980+1480 FB pumping scheme, (b) L-band 1480 + 1480 FB pumping scheme].

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Output (a) gain and NF (b) for L-band EDFA with FB pumping scheme without unpumped EDF after the backward pump.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Gain for optimized EDFA with and with out insertion loss of components [(a) C-band 980+1480FB pumping scheme].

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Average gain(a) and optimized position of components(b) for optimized C-band EDFA (980 nm + 1480 nm FF pumping scheme) with different DCM loss.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Average gain(a) and optimized position of components (b) for optimized L-band EDFA (1480 nm + 1480 nm FF pumping scheme) with different DCM loss.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters of the EDF used in this paper.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Other parameters used in the optimizations.

Equations (2)

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P ν R + ( z j ) = P ν L + ( z j ) F + ( ν ) , P ν L ( z j ) = P ν R ( z j ) F ( ν ) .
f = α 1 n f + α 2 G ave α 3 u f ,

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