Abstract

Fourier-transform imaging spectrometers offer important advantages over other spectral imaging modalities, such as, a wider free spectral range, higher spectral resolutions and, in low-photon-flux conditions, higher signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved. Unfortunately, for application in harsh environments, deployment of Fourier-transform instruments based on traditional moving-mirror interferometers is problematic due to their inherent sensitivity to vibration. We describe a new Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer, based on a scanning birefringent interferometer. This system retains the advantages of traditional Fourier transform instruments, but is inherently compact and insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, the precision requirements of the movement can be relaxed by typically two orders of magnitude in comparison to a traditional two-beam interferometer. The instrument promises to enable application of Fourier-transform imaging spectrometry to applications, such as airborne reconnaissance and industrial inspection, for the first time. Example spectral images are presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).
  2. P.J. Miller and A.R. Harvey, “Signal to noise analysis of various imaging systems” in Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging, Bearman, Bornhop & Levenson, Proc. SPIE4259, 16–21 (2001).
  3. S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, and J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).
  4. M.J. Persky, “A review of space infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A.R. Harvey and D.W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Imaging Apparatus,” Patent WO2004 005870 A1, (2004).
  6. J W Brault, “New approach to high-precision Fourier-transform spectrometer design,” Appl. Opt. 35, pp2891–2896 (1996)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Zahn, K. Oka, T. Ishigaki, and N. Baba, “Birefringent imaging spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 734–738 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hashimoto and S. Kawata, “Multichannel Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6096–6101 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M.J. Padgett and A.R. Harvey, “A static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807–2811 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  13. A.R. Harvey, “Determination of the optical constants of thin films in the visible by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 69, pp3649–3658 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R.F. Horton, “Optical design for a High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer” in Imaging Spectrometry II, Descour & Mooney, Proc. SPIE2819, 300–315 (1996).
  16. M. Françon and S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers Applications in Microscopy and Macroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, 1972).
  17. Labview virtual instrumentation software for personal computers, (National Instruments, 2003), http://www.ni.com/labview/.
  18. Labsphere Inc, 231 Shaker Street, POB 70, North Sutton, NH 03260, USA.

2004 (1)

R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A.R. Harvey, “Determination of the optical constants of thin films in the visible by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 69, pp3649–3658 (1998)
[CrossRef]

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M.J. Persky, “A review of space infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M.J. Padgett and A.R. Harvey, “A static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807–2811 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Abrams, M.C.

S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, and J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Baba, N.

Beale, J.

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

Brault, J W

Brault, J.W.

S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, and J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Davis, S.P.

S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, and J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Fletcher-Holmes, D.W.

A.R. Harvey and D.W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Imaging Apparatus,” Patent WO2004 005870 A1, (2004).

Fortunato, G.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Françon, M.

M. Françon and S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers Applications in Microscopy and Macroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, 1972).

Fronterhouse, D. S.

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Genest, J.

J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A.H.

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

Hanlon, T.J.

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

Harvey, A.R.

A.R. Harvey, “Determination of the optical constants of thin films in the visible by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 69, pp3649–3658 (1998)
[CrossRef]

M.J. Padgett and A.R. Harvey, “A static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807–2811 (1995)
[CrossRef]

P.J. Miller and A.R. Harvey, “Signal to noise analysis of various imaging systems” in Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging, Bearman, Bornhop & Levenson, Proc. SPIE4259, 16–21 (2001).

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

A.R. Harvey and D.W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Imaging Apparatus,” Patent WO2004 005870 A1, (2004).

Hashimoto, M.

Heintzmann, R.

R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, R.F.

R.F. Horton, “Optical design for a High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer” in Imaging Spectrometry II, Descour & Mooney, Proc. SPIE2819, 300–315 (1996).

Ishigaki, T.

Jones, B. A.

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Journet, B.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T.M.

R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Lidke, K.A.

R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallick, S.

M. Françon and S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers Applications in Microscopy and Macroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, 1972).

Meigs, A. D.

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.J.

P.J. Miller and A.R. Harvey, “Signal to noise analysis of various imaging systems” in Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging, Bearman, Bornhop & Levenson, Proc. SPIE4259, 16–21 (2001).

Oka, K.

Otten, L. J.

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.J.

M.J. Padgett and A.R. Harvey, “A static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807–2811 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Persky, M.J.

M.J. Persky, “A review of space infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prinzing, P.

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Prunet, S.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, P.

J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
[CrossRef]

Villemaire, A.

J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

Zahn, G.

App. Opt. (1)

J. Genest, P. Tremblay, and A. Villemaire, “Throughput of tilted interferometers,” App. Opt. 37,21, pp. 4819–4822. 1998
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, “Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 38, 983–990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

R. Heintzmann, K.A. Lidke, and T.M. Jovin, “Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy,” Optics Express,  12, pp 753–763 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

L. J. Otten, A. D. Meigs, B. A. Jones, P. Prinzing, and D. S. Fronterhouse, “Payload Qualification and Optical Performance Test Results for the MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager,” Proc. SPIE. 3498, pp. 231–238 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Rev. of Sci. Instr. (1)

A.R. Harvey, “Determination of the optical constants of thin films in the visible by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 69, pp3649–3658 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M.J. Padgett and A.R. Harvey, “A static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807–2811 (1995)
[CrossRef]

M.J. Persky, “A review of space infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A.R. Harvey and D.W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Imaging Apparatus,” Patent WO2004 005870 A1, (2004).

A.R. Harvey, J. Beale, A.H. Greenaway, T.J. Hanlon, and J. Williams, “Technology options for imaging spectrometry” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, Descour & Shen, Proc. SPIE4132, 13–24 (2000).

P.J. Miller and A.R. Harvey, “Signal to noise analysis of various imaging systems” in Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging, Bearman, Bornhop & Levenson, Proc. SPIE4259, 16–21 (2001).

S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, and J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

R.F. Horton, “Optical design for a High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer” in Imaging Spectrometry II, Descour & Mooney, Proc. SPIE2819, 300–315 (1996).

M. Françon and S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers Applications in Microscopy and Macroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, 1972).

Labview virtual instrumentation software for personal computers, (National Instruments, 2003), http://www.ni.com/labview/.

Labsphere Inc, 231 Shaker Street, POB 70, North Sutton, NH 03260, USA.

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the birefringent polarizing interferometer employed by the Fourier-transform hyperspectral imager. The optic axes within the Wollaston prisms are indicated by arrows and circles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) An image of an extended scene consisting of 5 spectral calibration tiles; the associated animation file has a size of 1.5 Mb, (b) an example interferogram recorded at one of the pixels as a function of displacement of the Wollaston prism, (c) absolute albedo image; the associated animation file has a size of 1Mb and (d) albedo image of house plants; the associated animation file has a size of 1.1Mb.

Equations (6)

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Δ OPL 2 db tan θ ,
Δ OPL 2 bh tan θ
ε T ( ω , h ) d ω = τ 1 τ 2 ε o ( ω ) [ exp ( i ω ( t + hb tan θ c ) ) ± exp ( i ω ( t hb tan θ c ) ) ] d ω ,
I ( ω , h ) d ω = 2 ε o 2 ( ω ) τ 1 τ 2 2 [ 1 ± cos ( 2 ω bh tan ϑ c ) ] d ω .
I ( h ) = 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 ( I o ± 0 I o ( ω ) cos ( 2 ω bh tan θ c ) d ω )
σ i = i 1 2 b ( σ i ) N Δ h tan θ ,

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