Abstract

This paper contains two optical designs that utilize the Alvarez-Humphrey surfaces to provide the miniature multi-modal microscope (4M device) with the additional capability of imaging different object depths onto the same image plane. The Alvarez-Humphrey surfaces are a pair of conjugate, rotationally asymmetrical, aspheric surfaces such that, the lateral movement of these surfaces across the optical axis, results in an element of variable optical power. The first design is a direct application of the Alvarez-Humphrey concept to the 4M device. However, due to the inadequate imaging performance and unavailability of space for the actuator due to proximity of the Alvarez Plates, a second design was created. The Separated Alvarez Plate Design is a unique design involving two conjugate pairs of Alvarez-Humphrey surfaces. The lateral movement of the central element changes the optical power. However, due to the symmetry of the system and the incorporation of the theoretical work done on induced aberration correction, this system has far superior performance. It also has adequate space for the actuator due to the separation of the elements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Luis W. Alvarez & William E. Humphrey, �??Variable Power Lens and System,�?? Patent # 3,507,565 United States Patent Office. (1970)
  2. M.R. Descour et al . �??Toward the Development of Miniaturized Imaging Systems for the Detection of Pre- Cancer,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 122-130 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. Junwon Lee, Jeremy D. Rodgers and Michael R. Descour, �??Imaging Quality Assessment of Multi-Modal Miniature Microscope,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1436-1451 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1436">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1436</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Iwona A. Palusinski, Jose M. Sasian and John E. Greivenkamp, �??Lateral Shift Variable Aberration Generators,�?? Applied Optics 38, 86-90 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  5. Karkkainen-A.-H.-O, Rantala J, Tamkin J and Michael Descour, �??Photolithographic processing of hybrid glasses for microoptics�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 614-623 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  6. Rogers J, Tkaczyk T, Descour M, Christiensen T, �??Characterization and testing of a MEMS scanning grating for structured illumination in a miniature microscope,�?? presented at the OSA Conference, Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.
  7. Fischer K, Guckel H, �??Long throw linear magnetic actuators stackable to one millimeter of structural height,�?? Microsystem-Technologies 4, 180-183 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  8. Matthew Chidley, �?? Preliminary imaging results of a high NA miniature injection-molded objective designed for fiber-confocal reflectance microscopy,�?? presented at the OSA Conference Tucson , USA, October 2003.
  9. Junwon Lee, �?? The Development of a Miniature Imaging System: Design, Fabrication and Metrology,�?? Dissertation, University of Arizona, 2003.

Applied Optics

Iwona A. Palusinski, Jose M. Sasian and John E. Greivenkamp, �??Lateral Shift Variable Aberration Generators,�?? Applied Optics 38, 86-90 (1999)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

M.R. Descour et al . �??Toward the Development of Miniaturized Imaging Systems for the Detection of Pre- Cancer,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 122-130 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microsystem-Technologies

Fischer K, Guckel H, �??Long throw linear magnetic actuators stackable to one millimeter of structural height,�?? Microsystem-Technologies 4, 180-183 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

Matthew Chidley, �?? Preliminary imaging results of a high NA miniature injection-molded objective designed for fiber-confocal reflectance microscopy,�?? presented at the OSA Conference Tucson , USA, October 2003.

Junwon Lee, �?? The Development of a Miniature Imaging System: Design, Fabrication and Metrology,�?? Dissertation, University of Arizona, 2003.

Luis W. Alvarez & William E. Humphrey, �??Variable Power Lens and System,�?? Patent # 3,507,565 United States Patent Office. (1970)

Rogers J, Tkaczyk T, Descour M, Christiensen T, �??Characterization and testing of a MEMS scanning grating for structured illumination in a miniature microscope,�?? presented at the OSA Conference, Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical Layout of 4M device. The Alvarez setup is expected to replace the third hybrid lens. i.e., the lens shown furthest away from the folding mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the Alvarez Humphrey Surfaces

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical Layout of the Adjacent Alvarez Plate Design

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spot sizes for various fields. Obj. Dist=350µm

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MTF curves for various fields. Obj. dist.=350µm

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Rms spot radius v/s field position for different object locations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical layout of the Separated Alvarez Plate Design

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spot diagrams for all field positions(obj,dist=350µm)

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

MTF curves for object distance=350µm

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Rms spot size v/s field position for different object distances.

Tables (8)

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Table 1. Basic optical parameters of the 4 M devices

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Table 2. Basic optical parameters for adjacent Alvarez plate design.

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Table 3. Specifications for the AAP design.

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Table 4. Specifications for the Alvarez Humphrey surfaces in the AAP design. Note: The signs of the coefficients do not have to be changed since the conventions in Zemax does that automatically

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Table 5. Basic Optical Parameters for the SAP design

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Table 6. Specifications for the SAP design

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Table 7. pecifications for the Alvarez-Humphrey surfaces in the SAP design

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Table 8. Higher order coefficients for the third A-H surface required for correction of Induced Aberrations

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z 1 = A ( x y 2 + x 3 3 ) + B x 2 + C x y + D x + E
Z 2 = A ( x y 2 + x 3 3 ) B x 2 C x y D x + E
Z 1 = A [ ( x + d ) y 2 + ( x + d ) 2 3 ] + B ( x + d ) 2 + C ( x + d ) y + D ( x + d ) + E
Z = Z 1 + Z 2
Z = Ad ( x 2 + y 2 ) + dx ( Ad + 2 B ) + Cdy + constant term
Z 1 ( x , y ) = A ( x y 2 + 1 3 x 3 )
Z 2 ( χ , γ ) = A ( χ γ 2 + 1 3 χ 3 )
W ( x , y ) = ( n 1 ) [ Z 1 ( x + d , y ) + Z 2 ( χ , γ ) ] .
χ = x + S ( x , y ) ( n 1 ) Z 1 ( x + d , y ) x
γ = y + S ( x , y ) ( n 1 ) Z 1 ( x + d , y ) y
S ( x , y ) = S + Z 1 ( x + d , y ) + Z 2 ( x , y )

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