Abstract

Photorefractive (PR) screening of children is currently used for detection of specific vision problems. We have used three-dimensional ray tracing and several published models of the human eye to investigate the ability to predict photorefractive results. Specifically, by using the optical design of an actual photorefractive instrument and using a monochromatic source as an example, we demonstrate the methodology of computing the relative spatial irradiance at its detector surface. The variation of the irradiance at the detector is computed for several eye models for a range of refractive errors. The results showed that the basic physics of photorefraction is described simply using the width and the center of the dark zone (CDZ) of retinal reflex images. Refractive parameters of a subject can be directly determined from these values of CDZ, and the contribution of monochromatic and chromatic aberrations upon the CDZ is derived.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2001 (2)

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Donahue and T. M. Johnson, “Age-based refinement of referral criteria for photoscreening,” Ophthalmol. 108, 2309–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Kennedy and D. Thomas “Evaluation of the iScreen digital screening system for amblyogenic factors,” CANJ Opthalmol. 35. 258–62, (2000).

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 16, 1881–91 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

R. Kusel, U. Oechsner, W. Wasemann, S. Russlies, E. Irmer, and B. Rassow, “Light-intensity distribution in eccentric photorefraction crescents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1500–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, Sun PC, and Fainman Y. “Modeling human eye aberrations and their compensation for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827–39, (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

H. Liou and N. Brenan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 14, 1684–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Gekeler, F. Schaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 472–82 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “Spherical aberration of the reduced schematic eye with elliptical refracting surface,” Vis. Sci. 74, 548–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and M. Campbell, “Slope-based eccentric photorefraction: theoretical analysis of different light source configurations and effects of ocular aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2547–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Simons K, “Preschool vision screening: Tationale, methodology and outcome.” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30, (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, and B. Robier, et al. “Two infant vision screening programs: prediction and prevention of strubiamus and amblyopia from photo- and videorefractive screening,” Eye 10 (Pt 2) 189–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

1993 (1)

M. Stayte, B. Reeves, and C. Wortham, “Ocular and vision defects in preschool children,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 77, 228–32 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. R. Angi, V. Pucci, F. Forattini, and P. A. Formentin. “Results of photorefractometric screening for amblyogenic defects in children aged 20 months,” Behav. Brain. Res. 49, 91–7, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in human,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1985 (3)

H. Howland, “Optics of photoretinoscopy: results from ray tracing,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 621–625 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R Navarror, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” Opt. Soc. Am. (A) 2, 1273–81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Bobier, “Eccentric photorefraction: Optical analysis and empirical measures.” Am. J. of Optom. & Physiol. Optics 62, 614–620, (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16, 999–1005. (1976)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

W. Lotmar, “Theoretical eye model with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 1522–9 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

1947 (1)

Al-Ahdali, I. H.

Allen, D.

Angi, M. R.

M. R. Angi, V. Pucci, F. Forattini, and P. A. Formentin. “Results of photorefractometric screening for amblyogenic defects in children aged 20 months,” Behav. Brain. Res. 49, 91–7, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, J.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, and B. Robier, et al. “Two infant vision screening programs: prediction and prevention of strubiamus and amblyopia from photo- and videorefractive screening,” Eye 10 (Pt 2) 189–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baraibar, B.

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartsch, D. U.

L. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, Sun PC, and Fainman Y. “Modeling human eye aberrations and their compensation for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827–39, (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedford, R. E.

Bescos, J.

R Navarror, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” Opt. Soc. Am. (A) 2, 1273–81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bobier, W.

Braddick, O.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, and B. Robier, et al. “Two infant vision screening programs: prediction and prevention of strubiamus and amblyopia from photo- and videorefractive screening,” Eye 10 (Pt 2) 189–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “Spherical aberration of the reduced schematic eye with elliptical refracting surface,” Vis. Sci. 74, 548–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in human,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenan, N.

H. Liou and N. Brenan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 14, 1684–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, SA.

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16, 999–1005. (1976)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. Parigger, “Human Eye Model Effects on Digital Retinascopic Diagnostic,” in SESAPS annual meeting (Starkville, MI, DC12000).

Choi, M.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donahue, S. P.

S. P. Donahue and T. M. Johnson, “Age-based refinement of referral criteria for photoscreening,” Ophthalmol. 108, 2309–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

El-Messiery, M. A.

Escudero-Sanz, I.

I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 16, 1881–91 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forattini, F.

M. R. Angi, V. Pucci, F. Forattini, and P. A. Formentin. “Results of photorefractometric screening for amblyogenic defects in children aged 20 months,” Behav. Brain. Res. 49, 91–7, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Formentin, P. A.

M. R. Angi, V. Pucci, F. Forattini, and P. A. Formentin. “Results of photorefractometric screening for amblyogenic defects in children aged 20 months,” Behav. Brain. Res. 49, 91–7, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. R.

L. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, Sun PC, and Fainman Y. “Modeling human eye aberrations and their compensation for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827–39, (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gekeler, F.

F. Gekeler, F. Schaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 472–82 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grand, Y. Le

Y. Le Grand, Optique physiologique. T. 1. Dioptrique de l’oeil er sa correlations. English translation by El Hage SG. (Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 64–7, 1980).

Greivenkamp, J.E.

J.E. Greivenkamp, J. Schwiegerling, J.M. Miller, and M.D. Mellinger, “Visual Acuity Modeling Using Optical Raytracing of Schematic Eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 120, 227–240 (1995).
[PubMed]

Griffin, D. R.

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, “The optical system of the eye,” Appendices to part 1. In: Von Helmholtz H. Physiological Optics. 3rd ed. Vols 1 and 2. (Hamburg, Voss, 350–8, 1909).

Howland, H.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gekeler, F. Schaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 472–82 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Howland, “Optics of photoretinoscopy: results from ray tracing,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 621–625 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irmer, E.

Jakosson, P.

G. lennerstrand, P. Jakosson, and G. Kvarnstrom, “Screening for ocular dysfunction in children: approaching a common program,” Acta. Ophthalmol. 214 (Suppl): 39–40, (1995)

Jennings, J. A.

W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16, 999–1005. (1976)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

S. P. Donahue and T. M. Johnson, “Age-based refinement of referral criteria for photoscreening,” Ophthalmol. 108, 2309–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K, Simons

Simons K, “Preschool vision screening: Tationale, methodology and outcome.” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30, (1996)
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, R.

R. Kennedy and D. Thomas “Evaluation of the iScreen digital screening system for amblyogenic factors,” CANJ Opthalmol. 35. 258–62, (2000).

Kusel, R.

Kvarnstrom, G.

G. lennerstrand, P. Jakosson, and G. Kvarnstrom, “Screening for ocular dysfunction in children: approaching a common program,” Acta. Ophthalmol. 214 (Suppl): 39–40, (1995)

lennerstrand, G.

G. lennerstrand, P. Jakosson, and G. Kvarnstrom, “Screening for ocular dysfunction in children: approaching a common program,” Acta. Ophthalmol. 214 (Suppl): 39–40, (1995)

Lewis, J. W. L.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. Parigger, “Human Eye Model Effects on Digital Retinascopic Diagnostic,” in SESAPS annual meeting (Starkville, MI, DC12000).

Liou, H.

H. Liou and N. Brenan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 14, 1684–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lotmar, W.

W. Lotmar, “Theoretical eye model with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 1522–9 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellinger, M.D.

J.E. Greivenkamp, J. Schwiegerling, J.M. Miller, and M.D. Mellinger, “Visual Acuity Modeling Using Optical Raytracing of Schematic Eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 120, 227–240 (1995).
[PubMed]

Miller, J.M.

J.E. Greivenkamp, J. Schwiegerling, J.M. Miller, and M.D. Mellinger, “Visual Acuity Modeling Using Optical Raytracing of Schematic Eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 120, 227–240 (1995).
[PubMed]

Moore, BD.

BD. Moore, “Epidemiology of ocular disorders in young children,” In: Moore BD, ed. Eye Care for Infants and Children. (Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 21–91997).

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, Visual instrumentation, (McGraw-Hill, 1999), Chap. 4.

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 16, 1881–91 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarror, R

R Navarror, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” Opt. Soc. Am. (A) 2, 1273–81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Norcia, A.

Oechsner, U.

Parigger, C.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. Parigger, “Human Eye Model Effects on Digital Retinascopic Diagnostic,” in SESAPS annual meeting (Starkville, MI, DC12000).

PC, Sun

L. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, Sun PC, and Fainman Y. “Modeling human eye aberrations and their compensation for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827–39, (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, PM.

S. Marcos, SA. Burns, PM. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41, 3861–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucci, V.

M. R. Angi, V. Pucci, F. Forattini, and P. A. Formentin. “Results of photorefractometric screening for amblyogenic defects in children aged 20 months,” Behav. Brain. Res. 49, 91–7, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rassow, B.

Reeves, B.

M. Stayte, B. Reeves, and C. Wortham, “Ocular and vision defects in preschool children,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 77, 228–32 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robier, B.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, and B. Robier, et al. “Two infant vision screening programs: prediction and prevention of strubiamus and amblyopia from photo- and videorefractive screening,” Eye 10 (Pt 2) 189–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

Russlies, S.

Santamaria, J.

R Navarror, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” Opt. Soc. Am. (A) 2, 1273–81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffel, F.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gekeler, F. Schaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 472–82 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J.

J.E. Greivenkamp, J. Schwiegerling, J.M. Miller, and M.D. Mellinger, “Visual Acuity Modeling Using Optical Raytracing of Schematic Eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 120, 227–240 (1995).
[PubMed]

Seidemann, A.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stayte, M.

M. Stayte, B. Reeves, and C. Wortham, “Ocular and vision defects in preschool children,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 77, 228–32 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “Spherical aberration of the reduced schematic eye with elliptical refracting surface,” Vis. Sci. 74, 548–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in human,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, D.

R. Kennedy and D. Thomas “Evaluation of the iScreen digital screening system for amblyogenic factors,” CANJ Opthalmol. 35. 258–62, (2000).

Von Helmholtz, H.

H. Von Helmholtz, Physio;ogical Optics. 3rd ed. Vols 1 and 2. (Hamburg, Voss, 91–121, 1909)

Wald, G.

Wasemann, W.

Wattam-Bell, J.

F. Gekeler, F. Schaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 472–82 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77, 537–48 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelm, B.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) and chromatic aberrations (LCA) in different eye models. The reference wavelength in the LCA plot is 589 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power of the virtual lens used to produce refractive prescription of model eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated photorefraction images with pupil diameters from 7 mm to 3 mm (top to bottom). From left to right, the refractive errors are indicated at the bottom.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of CDZ shift in photorefraction with 4 published measurements of ocular chromatic aberration and eye model. All data are adjusted vertically to have a zero value at the reference wavelength of 589 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation results of photoretinoscope images using Navarro, Arizona, and Liou eye models. From left to right are eyes with refractive error of +10 to -10 diopters. The irradiance levels in all calculation results are related.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Slope profiles from the simulation results of Fig. 5. The forms, or shapes, and the magnitudes of the irradiance profiles are similar within the 3 models’ result except for the shifted in refractive power (CDZ position) and the width of insensitive zone (dark zone). These differences are results from the monochromatic aberrations inherited with the eye models.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental data using iScreen photoretinoscope. Upper row: original photographs. The iris, pupil, and the 1st Purkinje image from cornea in each photograph are circled using a target-finding program. Second to forth row: Intensity distribution of the original data in red (2nd row), green (3rd row) and blue (4th row).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental data taken from a Caucasian using iScreen photoretinoscope. Upper row: original photographs. The iris, pupil, and the 1st Purkinje image from cornea in each photograph are circled using a target-finding program. Second to forth row: Intensity distribution of the original data in red (2nd row), green (3rd row) and blue (4th row).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Tear waves appeared after blinking eyes may cause interference patterns in photorefraction measurement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters used in the construction of the three eye models along with Gullstrand model.

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