Abstract

The reflectance of sea areas polluted by an oil-in-water emulsion was modeled using the radiance transfer Monte Carlo code. Example results of the contrast function parameterized by the observation angle for various angles of incident sunlight, various sea surface roughness states and two optically different types of seawaters are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. Otremba and J. Piskozub, "Modelling of the optical contrast of an oil film on a sea surface,�?? Opt. Express 9, 411-416 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-8-411">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-8-411</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,�?? In: Light in the sea, J.E.Tyler(Ed) Dowden, Hithinsons and Ross Inc., Strounburg, Pennsylvania, 152-174 (1977).
  3. Z. Otremba and T. Krol, �??Modeling of the crude oil suspension impact on inherent optical parameters of coastal seawater,�?? Polish J. Environmental Studies 11, 407-411 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dera, Marine Physics (Elseviere, Amsterdam, Warsaw, 1992) Sec. 4.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Otremba and T. Krol, �??Light attenuation parameters of polydisperse oil-in-water emulsion," Optica Applicata Vol. XXXI, No. 3, 600-609 (2001).
  8. Z. Otremba, Krol T., and J. Piskozub, �??Modeling the visibility of oil dispersed in the sea,�?? Proc. of 3th International Conference Oil Pollution �?? Prevention, Characterization, Clean Technology, Gdansk, Poland, 8-11 September, 2002, 144-148 (2002), <a href="http://castor.am.gdynia.pl/~zot/OilPoll2002.pdf">http://castor.am.gdynia.pl/~zot/OilPoll2002.pdf</a>

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Express

Optica Applicata

Z. Otremba and T. Krol, �??Light attenuation parameters of polydisperse oil-in-water emulsion," Optica Applicata Vol. XXXI, No. 3, 600-609 (2001).

Polish J. Environmental Studies

Z. Otremba and T. Krol, �??Modeling of the crude oil suspension impact on inherent optical parameters of coastal seawater,�?? Polish J. Environmental Studies 11, 407-411 (2002).

Other

J. Dera, Marine Physics (Elseviere, Amsterdam, Warsaw, 1992) Sec. 4.

Z. Otremba, Krol T., and J. Piskozub, �??Modeling the visibility of oil dispersed in the sea,�?? Proc. of 3th International Conference Oil Pollution �?? Prevention, Characterization, Clean Technology, Gdansk, Poland, 8-11 September, 2002, 144-148 (2002), <a href="http://castor.am.gdynia.pl/~zot/OilPoll2002.pdf">http://castor.am.gdynia.pl/~zot/OilPoll2002.pdf</a>

T. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,�?? In: Light in the sea, J.E.Tyler(Ed) Dowden, Hithinsons and Ross Inc., Strounburg, Pennsylvania, 152-174 (1977).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflectance calculated for a sea area polluted by oil emulsion (left plot) in relation to reflectance for a clean one (right plot)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Contrast of sea areas polluted by oil emulsion as dependent on direction of observation for various sea surface roughness (calm – upper row, roughened by wind - central and lower rows), and for two optically different sea waters (turbid water – left column, ocean water – right column). Blue lines relates to angles of light incidence of 0°, green – 30°, red – 60°.

Equations (4)

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R θ i φ i θ r φ r = dL r θ r φ r dE i θ i φ i
L r θ r φ r = 0 2 π 0 π 2 R θ i φ i θ r φ r L i θ i φ i cos θ i sin θ i d θ i d φ i
R θ φ = N r cos θ r ΔΩ N i cos θ i
c θ r φ r θ i φ i = R p θ r φ r θ i φ i R c θ r φ r θ i φ i R c θ r φ r θ i φ i

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