Abstract

In a novel one-step process, a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL, operation wavelength of 980 nm) is integrated with a hybrid microdiffractive lens by focused ion beam milling (FIBM) for use in free-space optical links. A hybrid microlens with a diameter of 100 μm, numerical aperture of 0.56, and sag height of 4.196 μm, combined with a diffractive lens with continuous relief and 6 annuli, was designed and fabricated in one step by FIBM on the back of a VCSEL with a GaAs substrate for beam collimation. A previous VCSEL integrated with a pure diffractive lens had a half-divergence angle of 0.6°; the half-divergence angle of the VCSEL with the hybrid microlens was improved to 0.3°. Test results show that athermalization with respect to the variation in operating temperature can be realized with the hybrid microlens.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, �??Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, �??Investigation of micro-diffractive lens with continuous relief with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using focused ion beam direct milling,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 424�??426 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Chunjie Rui Pu and Carl W. Wilmsen, �??Hybrid integration of VCSEL�??s to CMOS integrated circuits,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. l.5, 201�??207 (1999).
  4. Michael Lebby, Craig A. Gaw, Wenbin Jiang, P. A. Kiely, Chan Long Shieh, P. R. Claisse, Jamal Ramdani, Davis H. Hartman, Daniel B. Schwartz, and Jerry Grula, �??Characteristics of VCSEL array for parallel optical interconnects,�?? in 1996 Proceedings: 46th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 279�??291.
    [CrossRef]
  5. Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, �??Hybrid micro-diffractive�??refractive optical element with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for single-mode coupling,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 5872�??5876 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Hans Peter Herzig, Micro-optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  7. Hironori Sasaki, Kyoko Kotani, Hiroshi Wada, Takeshi Takamori, and Takashi Ushikubo, �??Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 1843�??1855 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Eva M. Strzelecka, Duane A. Louderback, Brian J. Thibeault, Geoff B. Thompson, Kent Bertilsson, and Larry A. Coldren, �??Parallel free-space optical interconnect based on arrays of vertical-cavity lasers and detectors with monolithic microlenses,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 2811�??2821 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Th. Ammer, M. Rossi, M. T. Gale, Ch. Zschokke, S. Westenhofer, H. P. Gauhhel, �??On-chip Ormocer microlens replication for VCSEL to fiber coupling,�?? in Proceedings, Applied Optics and Opto-Electronics Conference 2000 (Institute of Physics, London, 2000), pp. 76�??83.
  10. M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and H. P. Herzig, �??Refractive and difrractive properties of planar micro-optical elements,�?? Appl. Opt. 34, 5996�??6006 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Chunjie Rui Pu and Carl W. Wilmsen, �??Hybrid integration of VCSEL�??s to CMOS integrated circuits,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. l.5, 201�??207 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, �??Investigation of micro-diffractive lens with continuous relief with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using focused ion beam direct milling,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 424�??426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, �??Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

Michael Lebby, Craig A. Gaw, Wenbin Jiang, P. A. Kiely, Chan Long Shieh, P. R. Claisse, Jamal Ramdani, Davis H. Hartman, Daniel B. Schwartz, and Jerry Grula, �??Characteristics of VCSEL array for parallel optical interconnects,�?? in 1996 Proceedings: 46th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 279�??291.
[CrossRef]

Hans Peter Herzig, Micro-optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

Th. Ammer, M. Rossi, M. T. Gale, Ch. Zschokke, S. Westenhofer, H. P. Gauhhel, �??On-chip Ormocer microlens replication for VCSEL to fiber coupling,�?? in Proceedings, Applied Optics and Opto-Electronics Conference 2000 (Institute of Physics, London, 2000), pp. 76�??83.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of hybrid microdiffractive-microrefactive lens.

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Schematic diagram of single-VCSEL integrated with hybrid microlens combined with spherical lens and diffractive lens on the same side for collimating.

Fig.3
Fig.3

DOEs with continuous relief directly milled onto BK7 glass substrate by FIBM. (a) Three-dimensional micrograph measured by AFM; (b) 2D profile of the hybrid microlens measured by AFM.

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

Far-field angle (half-divergence angle) of the VCSEL measured by a BeamScop 5P beam scanner. The angle calculated in terms of inclination angle of the lines is 9.5 0.6°, and 0.3° without the microlens, with the pure diffractive lens, and with a hybr microlens, respectively. The drive current is 3 mA.

Fig.5.
Fig.5.

Far-field mode image of the VCSEL with integrated hybrid microlens at distance of 65 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Hybrid Microlens Design Parameters and System Parameters

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x f = x f , r ϕ r ϕ + x f , d ϕ d ϕ ,
ω 1 = ω 0 [ 1 + ( λ z π ω 0 2 n ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
x f f = x f , r f r + x f , d f d ,

Metrics