Abstract

We present the first scanning laser ophthalmoscope that uses adaptive optics to measure and correct the high order aberrations of the human eye. Adaptive optics increases both lateral and axial resolution, permitting axial sectioning of retinal tissue in vivo. The instrument is used to visualize photoreceptors, nerve fibers and flow of white blood cells in retinal capillaries.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  24. Full-length uncompressed movies can be downloaded from the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Website, <a href="http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm">http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm</a>, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2002).
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Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, "Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye," in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287-310.

Appl. Opt.

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, "Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng.

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 28, 488-492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem.

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, "Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomogr

R. N. Weinreb and A. W. Dreher, "Reproducibility and accuracy of topographic measurements of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J. E. Nasemann and R. O. W. Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, Berlin, 1990).

Laser Technology in Ophthalmology

R. H. Webb and F. C. Delori, "How we see the retina," in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, 1988). pp. 3-14.

Lasers and Light in Ophthalmol.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, "In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope," Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129-136 (1998).

Nature

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

The Handbook of Biological Confocal Micr

T. Wilson, "The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging systems," in The Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1990). pp. 99-113.

Vision Res.

D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Yellot Jr, "Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing," Vision Res. 22, 1205-1210 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vision Science and its Applications

A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye," Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C. ) 1, 90-93 (1997).

D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, andW. R. Freeman, "Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus," Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.) , 134-137 (1994).

Other

W. J. Donnelly, "Improving Imaging in the Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," M.S. dissertation, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2001).

Full-length uncompressed movies can be downloaded from the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Website, <a href="http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm">http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm</a>, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2002).

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory And Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, (Academic Press, London, 1984).

A. Roorda, "Double Pass Reflections in the Human Eye," Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The six main components are labeled. Lenses are labeled L# and mirrors M#. Retinal and pupil conjugate points are labeled r and p through the optical path. FO: fiber optic light source, AP: artificial pupil, BS: beamsplitter, DM deformable mirror, HS: horizontal scanner (16kHz), VS: vertical scanner (30 Hz), LA: lenslet array, FM: flipping mirror, CP: confocal pinhole, PMT: photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The two figures show the same area of retina taken with and without aberration correction with AO. In this case, the RMS wavefront error was reduced from 0.55 to 0.10 μm. The insets show the histograms of gray scales in the image.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Axial sectioning. These images are from a location 4.5 degrees in the superior retina. In the left image, the focal plane is at the surface of the nerve fibers. The central image shows a slightly deeper optical section where less nerve fiber structure is seen but the blood vessel is in focus. The right image shows the image when the focal plane is at the level of the photoreceptors, which are about 300 μm deeper than the left image. The blood vessel appears dark because scattered light from its surface is blocked by the confocal pinhole. Scale bar is 100 micrometers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(2 MB) Movie sequence (30 fps) showing the flow of white blood cells though the capillaries at the edge of the foveal avascular zone (10 MB version). The capillary is the m-shaped line in the frame. The fovea is 1 degree (450 μm) up and to the right of the center of the frame. The blood cells can be seen entering the capillary at the right side and exiting the bottom edge of the frame. The frame is a registered sum of 8 sequential frames. Some resolution of the movie is lost due to compression. Longer, uncompressed movies can be found at our website [24]: www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm. Scale bar is 100 microns.

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Change in photoreceptor spacing with eccentricity. The circle symbols show the cone photoreceptor spacing as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. The long-dashed line shows anatomical data from Curcio et al. 1990 and the short-dashed line show psychophysical estimations of cone spacing from Williams [25]. Our cone spacing estimates were made by measuring the average radius of Yellot’s ring [26] from the power spectrum of the images.

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