Abstract

We introduce a quantum key distribution scheme based on four�??photon coincidence measurements. This scheme offers a much higher degree of security than current quantum key distribution methods and minimizes problems due to photon losses and dark counts.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, �??Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,�?? in Proc. of IEEE Inter. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175�??179.
  2. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, �??Experimental quantum cryptography,�?? J. Cryptol. 5, 3�??28 (1992).
  3. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, �??Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy�??time Bell states,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster and G. M. Palma, �??Practical quantum cryptography based on two�??photon interferometry,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293�??1295 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Franson, �??Bell inequality for position and time,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205�??2208 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, �??Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330�??1333 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett and A. Chefles, �??Three-state quantum cryptography,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507�??516 (2000).
  8. H. Bechmann�??Pasquinucci and A. Peres, �??Quantum cryptography with 3�??state systems,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3313�??3316 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, D. N. Klyshko, and S. P. Kulik, �??Polarization state of a biphoton:Quantum ternary logic,�?? Phys. Rev. A 60, R4209�??R4212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. H. Shih and M. H. Rubin, �??Four-Photon Interference Experiment for the Testing of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Theorem,�?? Phys. Lett. A 204, 16�??22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. B. Pittman, �??On the Use of Double Entanglement in Four-Photon Experiments,�?? Phys. Lett. A 204, 193�??197 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bouwmeester, J. -W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, �??Observation of Three-Photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Entanglement,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345�??1349 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. -W. Pan, M. Daniell, S. Gasparoni, G. Weihs and A. Zeilinger, �??Experimental Demonstration of Four-Photon Entanglement and High-Fidelity Teleportation,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4435�??4438 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Zhao, J. -W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, �??Practical Scheme for Entanglement Concentration,�?? Phys. Rev. A 64 014301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Weinfurter and M. Zukowski, �??Four-Photon Entanglement From Down-Conversion,�?? Phys. Rev. A 64, 010102(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Verstraete, J. Dehaene, B. De Moor and H. Verschelde, �??Four Qubits Can Be Entangled in Nine Di.erent Ways,�?? Phys. Rev. A 65, 052112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. P. Tewari and P. Hariharan, �??Generation of entangled 4-photon states by parametric downconversion,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 44, 543�??553 (1997).
  18. P. Hariharan, J. Samuel and S. Sinha �??Four-photon interference: a realizable experiment to demonstrate violation of EPR postulates for perfect correlations,�?? J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. 1, 199�??205 (1999).
  19. P. Hariharan and B. C. Sanders, �??Cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion as a source of correlated photons,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1739�??1744 (2000).
  20. M. Oberparleiter and H. Weinfurter, �??Cavity-enhanced generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs,�?? Opt. Commun. 183, 133�??137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Hariharan, �??Simple, high-efficiency, single-photon trap detectors,�?? J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. 1, 522�??523 (1999).

J. Cryptol. (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, �??Experimental quantum cryptography,�?? J. Cryptol. 5, 3�??28 (1992).

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

S. P. Tewari and P. Hariharan, �??Generation of entangled 4-photon states by parametric downconversion,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 44, 543�??553 (1997).

P. Hariharan and B. C. Sanders, �??Cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion as a source of correlated photons,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1739�??1744 (2000).

J. Opt. B (1)

P. Hariharan, �??Simple, high-efficiency, single-photon trap detectors,�?? J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. 1, 522�??523 (1999).

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. (1)

P. Hariharan, J. Samuel and S. Sinha �??Four-photon interference: a realizable experiment to demonstrate violation of EPR postulates for perfect correlations,�?? J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. 1, 199�??205 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Oberparleiter and H. Weinfurter, �??Cavity-enhanced generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs,�?? Opt. Commun. 183, 133�??137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

Y. H. Shih and M. H. Rubin, �??Four-Photon Interference Experiment for the Testing of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Theorem,�?? Phys. Lett. A 204, 16�??22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, �??On the Use of Double Entanglement in Four-Photon Experiments,�?? Phys. Lett. A 204, 193�??197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

Z. Zhao, J. -W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, �??Practical Scheme for Entanglement Concentration,�?? Phys. Rev. A 64 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Weinfurter and M. Zukowski, �??Four-Photon Entanglement From Down-Conversion,�?? Phys. Rev. A 64, 010102(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Verstraete, J. Dehaene, B. De Moor and H. Verschelde, �??Four Qubits Can Be Entangled in Nine Di.erent Ways,�?? Phys. Rev. A 65, 052112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, D. N. Klyshko, and S. P. Kulik, �??Polarization state of a biphoton:Quantum ternary logic,�?? Phys. Rev. A 60, R4209�??R4212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

H. Bechmann�??Pasquinucci and A. Peres, �??Quantum cryptography with 3�??state systems,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3313�??3316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouwmeester, J. -W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, �??Observation of Three-Photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Entanglement,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345�??1349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. -W. Pan, M. Daniell, S. Gasparoni, G. Weihs and A. Zeilinger, �??Experimental Demonstration of Four-Photon Entanglement and High-Fidelity Teleportation,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4435�??4438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, �??Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy�??time Bell states,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster and G. M. Palma, �??Practical quantum cryptography based on two�??photon interferometry,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293�??1295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Franson, �??Bell inequality for position and time,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205�??2208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, �??Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330�??1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Three-state quantum cryptography (1)

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett and A. Chefles, �??Three-state quantum cryptography,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507�??516 (2000).

Other (1)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, �??Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,�?? in Proc. of IEEE Inter. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175�??179.

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