Abstract

To realize a genuine CW optical frequency synthesizer, a continuously tunable single-frequency CW laser has been employed to track precisely any arbitrary component of a wide bandwidth phase-stabilized optical comb. We demonstrate experimentally two fundamental aspects of optical frequency synthesis, namely, precise setting of the laser frequency at an arbitrary pre-determined value, and continuous tuning of the laser frequency with the digital precision known in radio frequency synthesis. A typical computer-automated search-and-lock procedure finishes on one-minute time scale.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. A. Diddams, “Precision phase control of ultrawide bandwidth fs laser - A network of ultrastable frequency marks across the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1675 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3288 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3288 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. A. Diddams, “Precision phase control of ultrawide bandwidth fs laser - A network of ultrastable frequency marks across the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1675 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bernard, J.E.

A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
[Crossref]

Castillega, J.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. A. Diddams, “Precision phase control of ultrawide bandwidth fs laser - A network of ultrastable frequency marks across the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1675 (2000).
[Crossref]

Diels, J.-C.

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3288 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. A. Diddams, “Precision phase control of ultrawide bandwidth fs laser - A network of ultrastable frequency marks across the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1675 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3288 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Livingston, D.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

Madej, A.A.

A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
[Crossref]

Marmet, L.

A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sanders, A.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelton, R. K.

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiner, D.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. A. Diddams, “Precision phase control of ultrawide bandwidth fs laser - A network of ultrastable frequency marks across the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1675 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A.A. Madej, L. Marmet, and J.E. Bernard, “Rb atomic absorption line reference for single Sr+ laser cooling systems,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 229 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L.-S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization between two passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64, Rapid Communications, 021802(R)(2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 2P state of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D-1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3288 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635, (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 826 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical pulse synthesis from two separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic and the basic operation principle of a fs-comb-guided optical frequency synthesizer. Heterodyne beat between the cw laser and the fs comb is used for frequency control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Heterodyne beat signal between the free-running cw laser and one of the comb components. (b) Beat signal after the cw laser is stabilized by the comb. Experimental data are in dots, and the associated Lorentzian fit is in solid line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Continuous tuning of the single frequency laser in precision steps guided by the phase stabilized optical comb. An independent optical cavity provides the frequency marks for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Random search of and stabilization to the targeted comb position by a single frequency cw laser, with an initial coarse guiding given by a wavelength meter (a), followed by a controlled frequency seeking (b). The entire searching procedure within a 0.5 nm spectral region finishes on one-minute time scale. Also shown is controlled fast switching of the laser diode frequency (c).

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