Abstract

We report on the design and fabrication of novel diffractive phase elements that reconstruct distinct intensity patterns in the far-field on illumination with two specific wavelengths. The elements contain deep surface-relief structures that represent phase-delays of greater than 2π radians. The design process incorporates a modified version of the iterative Fourier transform algorithm. A 16 phase-level element for dual wavelength (blue and red) operation, with high diffraction efficiency, is demonstrated experimentally.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).
  3. E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. H. Maliston , ‘ Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica ’, J.Opt. Soc. Am.   55 1205 ( 1965 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 1058 ( 1990 ).
  11. F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl , ‘ Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 5 1058 ( 1988 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 961 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. M. Barton , P. Blair , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations ,’ Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997 .

1996 (1)

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 1058 ( 1990 ).

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 961 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

1988 (1)

F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl , ‘ Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 5 1058 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

I. H. Maliston , ‘ Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica ’, J.Opt. Soc. Am.   55 1205 ( 1965 ).
[CrossRef]

Arieli, Y.

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. M.

I. M. Barton , P. Blair , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations ,’ Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997 .

Blair, P.

I. M. Barton , P. Blair , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations ,’ Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997 .

Bryngdahl, O.

F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl , ‘ Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 5 1058 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

Doskolovich, L. L.

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. M.

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

Eisenberg, N.

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Fagerholm, J.

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

Kazanskiy, N. L.

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Kharitnonov, S. I.

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Maliston, I. H.

I. H. Maliston , ‘ Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica ’, J.Opt. Soc. Am.   55 1205 ( 1965 ).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Noach, S.

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Noponen, E.

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Pekola, J.

E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Prise, M. E.

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

Ross, N.

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

Striebl, N.

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Barton , P. Blair , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations ,’ Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997 .

Tervonen, E.

E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Uspleniev, G. V.

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

Westerholm, J.

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 1058 ( 1990 ).

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 961 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl , ‘ Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 5 1058 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt. (2)

S. Noach , A. Lewis , Y. Arieli , and N. Eisenberg , ‘ Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping ’ App. Opt.   35 3635 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , and N. Ross , ‘ Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments ,’ App. Opt.   32 2519 ( 1993 )
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. M. Miller , M. R. Taghizadeh , J. Turunen , N. Ross , E. Noponen , and A. Vasara , ‘ Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica ’, J. Mod. Opt.   40 723 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc Am (1)

J. Turunen , J. Fagerholm , A. Vasara , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations ,’ J. Opt. Soc Am   A 7 1202 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 1058 ( 1990 ).

F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl , ‘ Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 5 1058 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski , ‘ Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures ,’ J. Opt. Soc. Am.   A 7 961 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

J.Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

I. H. Maliston , ‘ Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica ’, J.Opt. Soc. Am.   55 1205 ( 1965 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. and Lasers in Eng. (1)

L. L. Doskolovich , N. L. Kazanskiy , S. I. Kharitnonov , and G. V. Uspleniev , ‘ Focusators for laser-branding ’ Opt. and Lasers in Eng.   15 311 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Turunen , A. Vasara , H. Ichikawa , E. Noponen , J. Westerholm , M. R. Taghizadeh , and J. M. Miller , ‘ Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram ’ Opt. Commun.   84 383 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Jahns , M. M. Downs , M. E. Prise , N. Striebl , and S. J. Walker , ‘ Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping ,’ Opt. Eng.   28 1267 ( 1989 ).

E. Tervonen , J. Turunen , and J. Pekola , ‘ Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection ’, Opt. Eng.   33 2579 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. M. Barton , P. Blair , and M. R. Taghizadeh , ‘ Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations ,’ Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997 .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Uneven spacing of new phase levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

‘Red’ pattern

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

‘Blue’ pattern

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental output from two-colour PFE.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ = 2 π [ n ( λ ) 1 ] h λ .
SNR = m , n 𝕡 α 2 S mn m , n 𝕡 ( P mn α S mn ) 2 .
α = m , n 𝕡 S mn P mn m , n 𝕡 S mn .

Metrics