Abstract

We investigate theoretically the collective excitations of trapped Bose condensates with energies of the order of the chemical potential of the system. For the MIT sodium Bose condensate in a Cloverleaf trap, we find interesting level crossing behavior for high energy excitations and calculate the spatial magnetic dipole moments for selective creation of condensate excitations.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. G. Singh and D. S. Rokhsar, “Collective excitations of a confined Bose condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1667 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Stringari, “Collective excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2360 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. L. Fetter, “Ground state and excited states of a confined condensed Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4245 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. D. Esry, “Hartree-Fock theory for Bose-Einstein condensates and the inclusion of correlation effects”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 1147 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Castin and R. Dum, “Bose-Einstein condensation in time dependent traps”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5315 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).
  23. A. L. Fetter and D. Rokhsar, “Excited states of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap”, (preprint, 4/97).
  24. D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Edwards, (private communications).
  26. L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).
  27. L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).
  29. M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).
  30. R. Walsworth and L. You, “Selective creation of quasi-particles in trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 555 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Lewenstein and L. You, “Quantum phase diffusion of the Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3489 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (11)

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
[CrossRef]

R. Walsworth and L. You, “Selective creation of quasi-particles in trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, “Hartree-Fock theory for Bose-Einstein condensates and the inclusion of correlation effects”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 1147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (11)

Y. Castin and R. Dum, “Bose-Einstein condensation in time dependent traps”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein and L. You, “Quantum phase diffusion of the Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Singh and D. S. Rokhsar, “Collective excitations of a confined Bose condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stringari, “Collective excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Fetter, “Ground state and excited states of a confined condensed Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4245 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, C. C.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burt, E. A.

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin and R. Dum, “Bose-Einstein condensation in time dependent traps”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. W.

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Csordás, A.

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).

Davis, K.B.

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, R. J.

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druten, N. J. van

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dum, R.

Y. Castin and R. Dum, “Bose-Einstein condensation in time dependent traps”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, M.

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Edwards, (private communications).

Ensher, J. R.

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esry, B. D.

B. D. Esry, “Hartree-Fock theory for Bose-Einstein condensates and the inclusion of correlation effects”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 1147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fetter, A. L.

A. L. Fetter, “Ground state and excited states of a confined condensed Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4245 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Fetter and D. Rokhsar, “Excited states of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap”, (preprint, 4/97).

Fliesser, M.

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).

Ghrist, R. W.

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Graham, R.

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).

Griffin, A.

D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holland, M. J.

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoston, W.

L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
[CrossRef]

L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).

Hulet, R. G.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, D. A. W.

D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, S.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D. S.

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagan, Yu.

Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein and L. You, “Quantum phase diffusion of the Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).

Marinescu, M.

L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).

Matthews, M. R.

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewes, M. -O.

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michinel, H.

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miesner, H. J.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miesner, H.-J.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myatt, C. J.

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Öhberg, P.

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Pérez-García, V. M.

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rokhsar, D.

A. L. Fetter and D. Rokhsar, “Excited states of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap”, (preprint, 4/97).

Rokhsar, D. S.

K. G. Singh and D. S. Rokhsar, “Collective excitations of a confined Bose condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruprecht, P. A.

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackett, C. A.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlyapnikov, G. V.

Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Singh, K. G.

K. G. Singh and D. S. Rokhsar, “Collective excitations of a confined Bose condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenholm, S.

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Stringari, S.

A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Stringari, “Collective excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surkov, E. L.

Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surkov, E.L.

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Szépfalusy, P.

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).

Tittonen, I.

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Tollett, J. J.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, C. G.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R.

R. Walsworth and L. You, “Selective creation of quasi-particles in trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkens, M.

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

Wu, W.-C.

A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

You, L.

R. Walsworth and L. You, “Selective creation of quasi-particles in trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein and L. You, “Quantum phase diffusion of the Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).

Zaremba, E.

D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Analysis of in situ images of Bose-Einstein condensates of lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Fetter, “Ground state and excited states of a confined condensed Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4245 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. Kagan, E. L. Surkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Evolution of a Bose-condensed gas under variations of the confining potential”, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Esry, “Hartree-Fock theory for Bose-Einstein condensates and the inclusion of correlation effects”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 1147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. You, W. Hoston, and M. Lewenstein, “Low energy excitations of trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1581 (1997);
[CrossRef]

R. Walsworth and L. You, “Selective creation of quasi-particles in trapped Bose condensates”, Phys. Rev. A 55, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (16)

M. Lewenstein and L. You, “Quantum phase diffusion of the Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. W. Hutchinson, E. Zaremba, and A. Griffin, “Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Castin and R. Dum, “Bose-Einstein condensation in time dependent traps”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Griffin, W.-C. Wu, and S. Stringari, “Hydrodynamic modes in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Pérez-García, H. Michinel, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Low energy excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate: a variational analysis”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.B. Davis, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensations in a gas of sodium atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Jin, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Temperature-dependent damping and frequency shifts in collective excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, C. J. Myatt, M. J. Holland, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Coherence, correlations, and collisions: What one learns about Bose-Einstein condensates from their decay”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997);
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H. J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, “Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Edwards, P. A. Ruprecht, K. Burnett, R. J. Dodd, and C. W. Clark, “Collective excitations of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Singh and D. S. Rokhsar, “Collective excitations of a confined Bose condensate”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stringari, “Collective excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates”, Science 275, 637 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M. -O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate”, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell,“Observations of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor”, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

M. Edwards, (private communications).

L. You, W. Hoston, M. Lewenstein, and M. Marinescu, “Low energy excitation spectra of trapped Bose condensates”, Acta Phys. Pol. A,(to appear).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, R. Graham, and P. Szépfalusy, “Classical quasi-particle dynamics in trapped Bose condensates”, (preprint, cond-mat/9707122).

M. Fliesser, A. Csordás, P. Szépfalusy, and R. Graham, “Hydrodynamic excitations of Bose condensates in anisotropic traps”, (preprint, cond-mat/9706002).

P. Öhberg, E.L. Surkov, I. Tittonen, S. Stenholm, M. Wilkens, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Low-energy elementary excitations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas”, (preprint, 5/97).

A. L. Fetter and D. Rokhsar, “Excited states of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap”, (preprint, 4/97).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The calculated dependence of quasi-particle excitation frequencies on the number of condensed sodium atoms N, for the MIT Cloverleaf trap. The three separate panels are for the 4 separate parity sectors in x and y coordinates respectively: the first panel shows (even x, even y), (note k starts from 0 in the low N limit); the second panel shows (even x, odd y) [which is the same as the (odd x, even y) sector] ( k starts from ωx = 13ω in the low N limit); and the third panel shows (odd x, odd y) ( k starts from ωx + ωy = 26ω in the low N limit). The even z parity states are plotted with solid lines while the odd parity z states are plotted with thin dashed lines. The thick dashed line denotes the chemical potential.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The same calculations as in Fig. 1, now displaying the quasi-particle level structure for Lz = 0 excitations [a subset of the (even x, even y) parity sector shown in Fig. 1]. The open circles denote two calculated shape oscillation modes 17 . The high N, or asymptotic, limit of these two modes corresponds well with shapeoscillations observed in the MIT experiment 7 . The dashed line in the asymptotic limit, N = 105 - 106, are results based on Ref. 15. The filled circles, triangles, squares, and crosses denote, respectively, the modes labelled n = 0, 1, 2, 3 in Ref. 22.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated SMR coupling constants for the two Lz = 0 quasi-particle modes that are degenerate at = 26 when N = 1. These two modes are denoted as ‘H“ (for higher energy, this is the shape oscillation mode, see Fig. 2) and ‘L“ (for lower energy) with Ω k = u 0k + v 0k and γk = γ 0k + γ k0. A simple, spatially uniform SMR magnetic field was assumed. The dots denote the numerically computed points. As one can see, the coupling to the lower energy mode ‘L“ is practically zero with this spatially uniform SMR field.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

𝛨 = b r Ψ ̂ ( r ) [ ħ 2 2 M 2 + V t ( r ) μ ] Ψ ̂ ( r ) + u 0 2 b r Ψ ̂ ( r ) Ψ ̂ ( r ) Ψ ̂ ( r ) Ψ ̂ ( r ) ,
𝛨 k 0 ħ ω ͂ k g ͂ k g ͂ k + ( k = 0 zero mode part ) ,
Ψ ̂ ( r ) = N ψ 0 ( r ) + δ Ψ ̂ ( r ) ,
[ L + u 0 ρ 0 ] ψ 0 ( r ) = 0 ,
g ͂ k = d r [ U k ( r ) δ Ψ ̂ ( r ) + V k ( r ) δ Ψ ̂ ( r ) ] ,
[ L + 2 u 0 ρ 0 ( r ) ] U k ( r ) u 0 Δ 0 * ( r ) V k ( r ) = ħ ω ͂ k U k ( r ) ,
[ L + 2 u 0 ρ 0 ( r ) ] V k ( r ) u 0 Δ 0 ( r ) U k ( r ) = ħ ω ͂ k V k ( r ) ,
i ψ i ( r ) i IN μ m · B SMR ( r , t ) IN f ψ f ( r ) f
= μ m ψ i ( r ) e ̂ m ( r ) · e ̂ B ( r ) B SMR ( r ) ψ f ( r ) F ( t )
μ m ψ i ( r ) B SMR ( r ) ψ f ( r ) F ( t ) ,
𝛨 SMR = d r Ψ ̂ ( r ) μ m · B SMR ( r , t ) Ψ ̂ ( r ) ,
𝛨 SMR = F ( t ) k , k ' = 0 [ ( ħ u k k ' + ħ v k ' k ) g ͂ k g ͂ k ' ħ γ k ' k * g ͂ k g ͂ k ' ħ γ k k ' g ͂ k g ͂ k ] ,

Metrics