Abstract

We proposed a smart card holder authentication system that combines fingerprint verification with PIN verification by applying a double random phase encoding scheme. In this system, the probability of accurate verification of an authorized individual reduces when the fingerprint is shifted significantly. In this paper, a review of the proposed system is presented and preprocessing for improving the false rejection rate is proposed. In the proposed method, the position difference between two fingerprint images is estimated by using an optimized template for core detection. When the estimated difference exceeds the permissible level, the user inputs the fingerprint again. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by a computational experiment; its results show that the false rejection rate is improved.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).
  2. E. Watanabe and K. Kodate, "Implementation of a high-speed face recognition system that uses an optical parallel correlator," Appl. Opt. 44,666-676 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Javidi and J.L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33,1752-1756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical encryption based on input plane Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20,767-769 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Bor Wang, Ching-Cherng Sun, Wei-Chia Su, and Arthur E. T. Chiou, "Shift-Tolerance Property of an Optical Double-Random Phase-Encoding Encryption System," Appl. Opt. 39,4788-4793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart-card holders based on optical image encryption scheme," in Optical Information Systems, Bahram Javidi, Demetri Psaltis, eds., Proc. SPIE 5202, 88-96 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).
  8. J.L. Horner and P.D. Gianino, "Phase-only matched filtering," Appl. Opt. 23,812-816 (1984)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Ito,  et al., "A fingerprint matching algorithm using phaseonly correlation," IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comut. Sci. 87,682-691 (2004).
  10. Shoude Chang, Simon Boothroyd, Paparao Palacharla, and Sethuraman Pachanathan, "Rotation-invariant pattern recognition using a joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 127,107-116 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Official website, "QR code.com," http://www.denso-wave.com/qrcode/index-e.html.
  13. J. Tanida and Y. Ichioka, "Optical logic array processor using shadowgrams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73,800-809 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Ito, T. Kanaoka, Y. Hamamoto and S. Tomita, "An Algorithm for Classification of Fingerprints Based on the Core," IECE, D-Ⅱ73 1733-1741 (1990)

2005

2004

K. Ito,  et al., "A fingerprint matching algorithm using phaseonly correlation," IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comut. Sci. 87,682-691 (2004).

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

2001

S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).

2000

V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bor Wang, Ching-Cherng Sun, Wei-Chia Su, and Arthur E. T. Chiou, "Shift-Tolerance Property of an Optical Double-Random Phase-Encoding Encryption System," Appl. Opt. 39,4788-4793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

B. Javidi and J.L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33,1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984

Shoude Chang, Simon Boothroyd, Paparao Palacharla, and Sethuraman Pachanathan, "Rotation-invariant pattern recognition using a joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 127,107-116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J.L. Horner and P.D. Gianino, "Phase-only matched filtering," Appl. Opt. 23,812-816 (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

Gianino, P.D.

Horner, J.L.

B. Javidi and J.L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33,1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.L. Horner and P.D. Gianino, "Phase-only matched filtering," Appl. Opt. 23,812-816 (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichioka, Y.

Ishida, S.

S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).

Ito, K.

K. Ito,  et al., "A fingerprint matching algorithm using phaseonly correlation," IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comut. Sci. 87,682-691 (2004).

Javidi, B.

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical encryption based on input plane Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20,767-769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and J.L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33,1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kodate, K.

Mimura, M.

S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).

Obi, T.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Ohyama, N.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Partha, V. R.

V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Riasati, V. R.

V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seto, Y.

S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Tanida, J.

Watanabe, E.

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Yamaya, T.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Appl. Opt.

IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comut. Sci.

K. Ito,  et al., "A fingerprint matching algorithm using phaseonly correlation," IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comut. Sci. 87,682-691 (2004).

IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst.

S. Ishida, M. Mimura, and Y. Seto, "Development of Personal Authentication Techniques Using Fingerprint Matching Embedded in Smart Cards," IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. 84,812-818 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Opt.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart card holders identification based on optical image encryption," Jpn. J. Opt. 33,37-44 (2004).

Opt. Commun.

Shoude Chang, Simon Boothroyd, Paparao Palacharla, and Sethuraman Pachanathan, "Rotation-invariant pattern recognition using a joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 127,107-116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. Javidi and J.L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33,1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt.Eng.

V. R. Riasati, ParthaP. Banerjee, M. A. G. Abushagur, and K. B. Howell, "Rotation-invariant synthetic discriminant function filter for pattern recognition," Opt.Eng. 39,1156-1161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

Official website, "QR code.com," http://www.denso-wave.com/qrcode/index-e.html.

H. Suzuki, T. Yamaya, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi and N. Ohyama, "Fingerprint verification for smart-card holders based on optical image encryption scheme," in Optical Information Systems, Bahram Javidi, Demetri Psaltis, eds., Proc. SPIE 5202, 88-96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, T. Kanaoka, Y. Hamamoto and S. Tomita, "An Algorithm for Classification of Fingerprints Based on the Core," IECE, D-Ⅱ73 1733-1741 (1990)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Smart card holder authentication system which combines fingerprint verification with PIN verification by applying a double random phase encoding.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flow of double random phase encoding.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The POC waveforms are shown. The left waveform is obtained by calculating the POC between same fingerprints, and the right one is the POC between different fingerprints.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The method of bit encoding into 2D image is shown. When the right square is white, these squares express zero, and when the left one is white, they express one. (b) An example image which is transformed from a character sequence “1234ABCD”. Tags are also installed at the upper left corner and the lower right corner of the bit pattern.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Procedure of decoding a PIN data from the decrypted image.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Workflow of the preprocessing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

This figure shows the template image which is a part of an ellipse. The parameters which represent the characteristic of the arc are also shown.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

These images show the experimental result of template image generation, (a) optimized template image, (b) estimated cores, which are represented by black points.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Result images are shown, (a) fingerprint image for enrollment, (b) encryption key image generated from (a), (c) original PIN image, (d) same individual’s fingerprint image for verification, (e) decryption key image generated from (d), (f) decrypted image by using (e), (g) different individual’s fingerprint image for verification, (h) decryption key image generated from (g), (i) decrypted image by using (h).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The actual position differences between two fingerprints used in the experiment are plotted. These graphs also show the result of verification in the case of (a) without removing (b) with removing the significantly shifted fingerprints.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Accuracy of experimental verification

Equations (17)

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f m ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) exp [ jR ( x , y ) ] .
f r ( x d , y d ) = F m * ( u , v ) N ( u , v )
= f m * ( x d , y d ) * n ( x d , y d ) ,
g 1 ( x , y ) = 1 [ exp { j K E ( u , v ) } ] ,
g 2 ( x , y ) = 1 [ exp { j K D ( u , v ) } ] .
G E ( u , v ) = [ g E ( x , y ) ]
= A E ( u , v ) exp { j P E ( u , v ) } ,
G D ( u , v ) = [ g D ( x , y ) ]
= A D ( u , v ) exp { j P D ( u , v ) } ,
K E ( u , v ) = P E ( u , v ) ,
K D ( u , v ) = P D ( u , v ) .
n ( x d , y d ) { δ ( x d α , y d β ) ( correct fingerprint ) random sequence ( incorrect fingerprint ) ,
( x e , y e ) = ( x 1 x 2 , y 1 y 2 ) ,
Δ E = average ( x a x e ) 2 + ( y a y e ) 2 all training image pairs ,
BER = N Error N PIN ,
FRR = N FP N S ,
FAR = N FN N S ,

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