Abstract

It has been proposed that a planar silver layer could be used to project a super-resolution image in the near field when illuminated near its plasma frequency [J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3966 (2000)]. This has been investigated experimentally using a modified form of conformal-mask photolithography, where dielectric spacers and silver layers are coated onto a tungsten-on-glass mask. We report here on the experimental confirmation that super-resolution imaging can be achieved using a 50-nm thick planar silver layer as a near-field lens at wavelengths around 365 nm. Gratings with periods down to 145 nm have been resolved, which agrees well with our finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel, �??Near-perfect imaging in a focusing system based on a left-handed-material plate,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, art. no. 077401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie and C. R. Wolf, �??Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403�??4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung and D. R. S. Cumming, �??Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560�??3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. J. Blaikie and D. O. S. Melville, �??Imaging through planar silver lenses in the optical near field,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S176�??S183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. F. Talbot, �??Facts relating to optical science,�?? Phil. Mag. 9, 401�??407 (1836).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel, �??Near-perfect imaging in a focusing system based on a left-handed-material plate,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, art. no. 077401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, �??Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966�??3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, �??Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,�?? Science 292, 77�??79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the near-field imaging experimental arrangement. A bottom anti-reflection coating (BARC) layer is used beneath the resist to prevent substrate reflections.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM image and line trace taken on the surface of the SiO2 layer of a 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack, directly above a 350-nm period grating in the underlying tungsten.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM image and line scan of a 1-µm period grating exposed through the 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack. The height scale on the AFM image is 130 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AFM images of gratings imaged through the 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack, with periods of (a) 500 nm, (b) 350 nm, (c) 290 nm, (d) 250 nm, (e) 200 nm and (f) 170 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results for a 145-nm period grating exposed through the 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack: (a) AFM image and (b) Fourier transform in the direction of the grating vector k g.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated intensity profiles 25 nm below the photoresist surface for exposure through the 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack. Grating periods are (a) 300 nm and (b) 200 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated image contrast V as a function of grating period, extracted 25-nm below the surface of the resist for exposure through a 25/50/10-PMMA/Ag/SiO2 lens stack.

Equations (2)

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p min = λ n ,
V = I max I min I max + I min ,

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