Abstract

The application of modulation instability-initiated nonlinear broadening of two CW pumps at different wavelengths, in order to achieve superior gain ripple performance in broadband Raman amplifiers, is demonstrated for the first time experimentally. A particular example using Truewave and LEAF fibers is offered, in which the 0.1 dB gain ripple band is extended from 5 nm to 19 nm. Experimental results are in a good agreement with numerical modeling. Guidelines for optimal broadening are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Emori, K. Tanaka, S. Namiki, “100nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalised by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode unit,” Electron. Lett. 1355-1356 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant, P. V. Mamyshev, “Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 592-594 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. N.S.Kim, M.Prabhu, C.Li, J.Song, K.Ueda, “1239/1484 cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with CW output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by CW Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 219-222 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  4. T.J.Ellingham, L.M.Gleeson, N.J. Doran, “Enhanced Raman amplifier performance using non-linear pump broadening,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4.1.3 (2002)
  5. D. A Chestnut, J. R. Taylor, “Gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers with nonlinearity-broadened pumps,” Opt. Lett., 2294-2296 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Abeeluck, K. Brar, J. Bouteiller, C. Headley, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber using a continuous wave pump,” in Proc. OFC 2003, ThT1 (2003)
  7. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida (2001)
  8. T. J. Ellingham, A. Pustovskikh, J. D. Ania-Castañón, M. P. Fedoruk, S. Kobtsev and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman amplifier with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Proc. ECOC 2004, We1.3.4 (2004)
  9. M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M.L. Hernanz , P.R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 323-328 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Anderson, L. Helczynski-Wolf, M. Lisak and V. Semenov, “Features of modulational instability of partially coherent light : Importance of the incoherence spectrum”, Phys. Rev. E 025601 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Mussot, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, and S. Pitois, “Spectral broadening of a partially coherent CW laser beam in single-mode optical fibers”, Opt. Express 12, 2838 (2004) , <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2838">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2838</a.>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Namiki, Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division- multiplexed high-power laser diodes” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3 (2001)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Emori, K. Tanaka, S. Namiki, “100nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalised by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode unit,” Electron. Lett. 1355-1356 (1999)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division- multiplexed high-power laser diodes” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3 (2001)

Opt. Commun. (2)

N.S.Kim, M.Prabhu, C.Li, J.Song, K.Ueda, “1239/1484 cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with CW output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by CW Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 219-222 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M.L. Hernanz , P.R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 323-328 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

D. A Chestnut, J. R. Taylor, “Gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers with nonlinearity-broadened pumps,” Opt. Lett., 2294-2296 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant, P. V. Mamyshev, “Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 592-594 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Anderson, L. Helczynski-Wolf, M. Lisak and V. Semenov, “Features of modulational instability of partially coherent light : Importance of the incoherence spectrum”, Phys. Rev. E 025601 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Proc. ECOC 2002 (1)

T.J.Ellingham, L.M.Gleeson, N.J. Doran, “Enhanced Raman amplifier performance using non-linear pump broadening,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4.1.3 (2002)

Proc. ECOC 2004 (1)

T. J. Ellingham, A. Pustovskikh, J. D. Ania-Castañón, M. P. Fedoruk, S. Kobtsev and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman amplifier with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Proc. ECOC 2004, We1.3.4 (2004)

Proc. OFC 2003 (1)

A. Abeeluck, K. Brar, J. Bouteiller, C. Headley, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber using a continuous wave pump,” in Proc. OFC 2003, ThT1 (2003)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida (2001)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System schematic

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CW light after propagation through 10.390km length of Truewave, the dispersion zero is approximately at 1454nm. The MI peaks produced at 1455nm can be seen, but are not apparent at 1450nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pump spectra at the input (grey lines) and output (black lines) of the broadening pre-fibers. Top-1455 nm. Bottom-1480 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Gain spectra of the amplifier on its different configurations: Top-With unbroadened pumps. The solid line corresponds to the experimental result, while the dashed line shows the numerical prediction. Center-With nonlinearly-broadened pumps. The solid line corresponds to the experimental result, while the dashed line shows the numerical prediction. Bottom-Comparison between the gain ripples with and without pump broadening.

Equations (3)

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g ( Ω ) = β 2 Ω [ Ω c 2 Ω 2 ] 1 2
Ω 2 < Ω c 2 = ( 4 γ P in e α z ) β 2
ω 0 ± Ω MAX , Ω MAX = [ 2 γ P in exp ( α z ) β 2 ] 1 2 .

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