Abstract

A simple and efficient optical interference method for fabricating high quality two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) periodic structures is demonstrated. Employing multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique, different types of periodic structures are created depending on the number of exposure and the rotation angle of the sample for each exposure. Square and hexagonal 2D structures are fabricated by a multi-exposure of two-beam interference pattern with a rotation angle of 90° and 60° between two different exposures, respectively. Three-exposure, in particular, results in different kinds of 3D structures, with close lattice constants in transverse and longitudinal directions, which is difficult to be obtained by the commonly used multi-beam interference technique. The experimental results obtained with SU-8 photoresist are well in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique should be very useful for fabrication of photonic crystals.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Shoji and S. Kawata , “ Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 2668 – 2670 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Straub and M. Gu , “ Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1824 – 1826 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. Mizeikis , K. K. Seet , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2061 – 2063 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Pang , W. Nakagawa , and Y. Fainman :, “ Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 5450 – 5456 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. D. Lai , W. P. Liang , J. H. Lin , and C. C. Hsu , “ Rapid fabrication of large-area periodic structures containing well-defined defects by combining holography and mask techniques ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5331 – 5337 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=84897
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

N. D. Lai , W. P. Liang , J. H. Lin , and C. C. Hsu , “ Rapid fabrication of large-area periodic structures containing well-defined defects by combining holography and mask techniques ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5331 – 5337 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=84897
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

V. Mizeikis , K. K. Seet , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2061 – 2063 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. Pang , W. Nakagawa , and Y. Fainman :, “ Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 5450 – 5456 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

M. Straub and M. Gu , “ Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1824 – 1826 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata , “ Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 2668 – 2670 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badilescu, S.

Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Blanco, A.

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. M.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Costard, E.

V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Diviliansky, I. B.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Egan, G. L.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Enkrich, C.

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Freymann, G. V.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Han, Y. -J.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. C.

John, S.

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

V. Mizeikis , K. K. Seet , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2061 – 2063 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

S. Shoji and S. Kawata , “ Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 2668 – 2670 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Koch, W.

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Lai, N. D.

Liang, W. P.

Lin, J. H.

Liu, Q.

X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Maldovan, M.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Mallouk, T. E.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Mayer, T. S.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Meisel, D. C.

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Miklyaev, Y. V.

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis , K. K. Seet , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2061 – 2063 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

V. Mizeikis , K. K. Seet , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2061 – 2063 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, W.

Natarajan, L V.

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, L.

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Seet, K. K.

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishido, A.

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Shoji, S.

S. Shoji and S. Kawata , “ Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 2668 – 2670 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Straub, M.

Sturm, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, H. M.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. L.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Truong, V. -V.

Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Z.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. F.

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y. -H.

Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Z. H.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. G.

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y. C.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. A.

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. P. Tondiglia , L V. Natarajan , R. L. Sutherland , D. Tomlin , and T. J. Bunning , “ Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals ,” Adv. Mater.   14 , 187 – 191 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

X. Yang , L. Cai , and Q. Liu , “ Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures ,” Appl. Opt.   32 , 6894 – 6900 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

L. Pang , W. Nakagawa , and Y. Fainman :, “ Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 5450 – 5456 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Shoji and S. Kawata , “ Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 2668 – 2670 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Shishido , I. B. Diviliansky , I. C. Khoo , T. S. Mayer , S. Nishimura , G. L. Egan , and T. E. Mallouk , “ Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 3332 – 3334 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , and H. Misawa , “ Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 725 – 727 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , E. L. Thomas , G. Chen , Y. -J. Han , and S. Yang , “ Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 5434 – 5436 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Miklyaev , D. C. Meisel , A. Blanco , G. V. Freymann , K. Busch , W. Koch , C. Enkrich , M. Deubel , and M. Wegener , “ Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1284 – 1286 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo , S. Matsuo , S. Juodkazis , V. Mizeikis , and H. Misawa , “ Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 2758 – 2760 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Zhong , S. A. Zhu , H. M. Su , H. Z. Wang , J. M. Chen , Z. H. Zeng , and Y. L. Chen , “ Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 061103 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun , S. Matsuo , and H. Misawa , “ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 786 – 788 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Y. -H. Ye , S. Badilescu , and V. -V. Truong , “ Large-scale ordered croporous SiO 2 thin films by a template-directed method ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 616 – 618 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. C. Kitson , W. L. Barnes , and J. R. Sambles , “ The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   8 , 1662 – 1664 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Berger , O. Gauthier-Lafaye , and E. Costard , “ Photonic band gaps and holography ,” J. Appl. Phys.   82 , 60 – 64 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov , X. Z. Bo , J. C. Sturm , and D. J. Norris , “ On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals ,” Nature   414 , 289 – 293 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Deubel , G. V. Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensionalphotonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nature Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. M. Su , Y. C. Zhong , X. Wang , X. G. Zheng , J. F. Xu , and H. Z. Wang , “ Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication ,” Phys. Rev. E   67 , 056619 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of multi-exposure two-beam interference technique used for fabrication of 2D and 3D periodic structures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated iso-intensity distribution (Iiso =60%Imax ) of three-exposure of two-beam interference pattern with λ = 514 nm, θ = 15°. Three exposures are realized at angles: (a): (α, β) = (90°, 0°), (0°, 45°), and (180°, 45°); (b): (α, β) = (90°, 0°), (0°, 30°), and (180°, 30°); and (c): (α, β) = (60°, 0°), (0°, 30°), and (180°, 30°).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of 2D periodic structures, Λ = 1μm (θ = 9.35°, λ= 325nm): (a) square structure obtained by two-exposure at α= 0° and 90°; (b) hexagonal structure obtained by two-exposure at α= 0° and 60°; (c) hexagonal structure obtained by three-exposure at α= -60°, 0° and 60°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images of 3D periodic structures, Λ = 2μm (θ= 7.38°, λ= 514nm), fabricated by three exposures: (a) (α, β) = (90°, 0°), (0°, 45°), and (180°, 45°); (b) (α, β) = (60°, 0°), (0°, 30°), and (180°, 30°); (c) side view of (b). Insets are theoretical calculation results for comparison.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 1 α β , 2 α β = E 10,20 cos [ k z cos ( θ β ) ± k sin ( θ β ) ( x cos α + y sin α ) ω t ] ,
I α β = E 1 α β + E 2 α β 2 = 2 E 0 2 cos 2 [ k sin θ ( z sin β + ( x cos α + y sin α ) cos β ) ] ,
Λ = λ 2 sin θ ,
I multi-exposure = i I α i β i ,

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