Abstract

We introduce a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in OCT images based on anisotropic noise suppression and deformable splines. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) data was acquired at 29 kHz A-line rate with a depth resolution of 2.6 μm and a depth range of 1.6 mm. Areas of 9.6x6.4 mm2 and 6.4x6.4 mm2 were acquired in approximately 6 seconds. The deformable spline algorithm determined the vitreous-RNFL and RNFL-ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer boundary, respectively, based on changes in the reflectivity, resulting in a quantitative estimation of the RNFL thickness. The thickness map was combined with an integrated reflectance map of the retina and a typical OCT movie to facilitate clinical interpretation of the OCT data. Large area maps of RNFL thickness will permit better longitudinal evaluation of RNFL thinning in glaucoma.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Vrabec, "Temporal Raphe of Human Retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 926-938 (1966).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Computers in Cardiology 2000 (1)

R. C. K. Chan, J. Hemphill, L. C. Lees, R. S. Karl, W. C., "Anisotropic edge-preserving smoothing in carotid B-mode ultrasoundfor improved segmentation and intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement," in IEEE Computers in Cardiology 2000 (IEEE, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2000), pp. 37-40.

IEEE Intn'l Conf. on Image Processing (1)

R. C. K. Chan, K. J., Karl W. C., Lees R. S., Castanon D. A., "A variational energy approach for estimating vascular structure and deformation from B-mode ultrasound imagery," in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2000), pp. 160-163.

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

C. Y. Xu, and J. L. Prince, "Snakes, shapes, and gradient vector flow," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 359-369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Medical Imag. (1)

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, "Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model," IEEE Trans. Medical Imag. 20, 900-916 (2001).

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes - Active Contour Models," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. R. A. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1280-1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B - Opt. Phys. (1)

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fouriertransform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B - Opt. Phys. 17, 1795-1802 (2000).

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Sakai, K. Sano, K. Tsuzuki, M. Ueno, and Y. Kawamura, "Temporal raphe of the retinal nrve-fiber layer revealed by medullated fibers," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 655-658 (1987).

Ophthalmology (3)

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, "Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmology 110, 190-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Aydin, G. Wollstein, L. L. Price, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Optical coherence tomography assessment of retinal nerve fiber laver thickness changes after glaucoma surgery," Ophthalmology 110, 1506-1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, "Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes," Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

B. Cense, N.A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435</a>.
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953</a>

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004),<a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367</a>.
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>

Shuliang Jiao, R.K., Xiangrun Huang, Giovanni Gregori, and Carmen A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 444-452 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444</a>.
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404</a>.
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, "Numerical dispersion compensation for Partial Coherence Interferometry and Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 9, 610-615 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-12-610">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-12-610<a/>.

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and G. J. Tearney, "Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 4025-4034 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4025">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4025</a>.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE, 2005 (1)

R. Daniel Ferguson, D.X.H., Nicusor V. Iftimia, Karim Slaoui, Gadi Wollstein, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Michelle L. Gabriele, Joel S. Schuman, "Three-dimensional retinal maps with tracking optical coherence tomography (TOCT)," in Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, J.A.I.Valery V. Tuchin, James G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 5690, 66-71, (2005).

SIAM, 1994 (1)

R. Barrett, M. B., T. F. Chan, J. Demmel, J. Donato, J. Dongarra, V. Eijkhout, R. Pozo, C. Romine and H. Van der Vorst, Templates for the Solution of Linear Systems: Building Blocks for Iterative Methods (SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, 1994).

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