Abstract

We demonstrate that semiconductor nanowires can be translated, rotated, cut, fused and organized into nontrivial structures using holographic optical traps. The holographic approach to nano-assembly allows for simultaneous independent manipulation of multiple nanowires, including relative translation and relative rotation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber , “ A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires ,” Science   279 , 208 – 211 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. M. Lieber , “ Nanoscale science and technology: Building a big future from small things ,” MRS Bulletin   28 , 486 – 491 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Samuelson , “ Self-forming nanoscale devices ,” Materials Today   6 , 22 – 31 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. W. Zhong , “ Nanostructures of zinc oxide ,” Materials Today   7 , 26 – 33 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier , “ Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical elements ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   69 , 1974 – 1977 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. E. Curtis , B. A. Koss , and D. G. Grier , “ Dynamic holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Commun.   207 (1–6), 169 – 175 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Polin , K. Ladavac , S.-H. Lee , Y. Roichman , and D. G. Grier , “ Optimized holographic optical traps ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5831 – 5845 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5831.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Ashkin , J. M. Dziedzic , J. E. Bjorkholm , and S. Chu , “ Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles ,” Opt. Lett.   11 , 288 – 290 ( 1986 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. K. Batchelor , “ Slender-body theory for particles of arbitrary cross-section in Stokes flow ,” J. Fluid Mech.   44 , 419 ( 1970 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Takaisi , “ Note on the drag on a circular cylinder moving with low speeds in a semi-infiniite liquid bounded by a plane wall ,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan   11 , 1004 – 1008 ( 1955 ).
  15. T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. J. Collins , “ Mechanism and defect responsible for edge emission in CdS ,” J. Appl. Phys.   30 , 1135 – 1140 ( 1959 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander , “ Optical vortex trapping of particles ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 827 – 829 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier , “ Structure of optical vortices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 133,901 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Sundbeck , I. Gruzberg , and D. G. Grier , “ Structure and scaling of helical modes of light ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 477 – 479 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. B. Simpson , K. Dholakia , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: An optical spanner ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 52 – 54 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. Plewa , E. Tanner , D. M. Mueth , and D. G. Grier , “ Processing carbon nanotubes with holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1978 – 1981 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1978 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. K. Ajito and K. Torimitsu , “ Single nanoparticle trapping using a Raman tweezers microscope ,” Appl. Spec.   56 , 541 – 544 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Plewa , E. Tanner , D. M. Mueth , and D. G. Grier , “ Processing carbon nanotubes with holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1978 – 1981 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1978 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Zhong , “ Nanostructures of zinc oxide ,” Materials Today   7 , 26 – 33 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier , “ Structure of optical vortices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 133,901 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lieber , “ Nanoscale science and technology: Building a big future from small things ,” MRS Bulletin   28 , 486 – 491 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. Samuelson , “ Self-forming nanoscale devices ,” Materials Today   6 , 22 – 31 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

J. E. Curtis , B. A. Koss , and D. G. Grier , “ Dynamic holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Commun.   207 (1–6), 169 – 175 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Ajito and K. Torimitsu , “ Single nanoparticle trapping using a Raman tweezers microscope ,” Appl. Spec.   56 , 541 – 544 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber , “ A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires ,” Science   279 , 208 – 211 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier , “ Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical elements ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   69 , 1974 – 1977 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander , “ Optical vortex trapping of particles ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 827 – 829 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

G. K. Batchelor , “ Slender-body theory for particles of arbitrary cross-section in Stokes flow ,” J. Fluid Mech.   44 , 419 ( 1970 ).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

R. J. Collins , “ Mechanism and defect responsible for edge emission in CdS ,” J. Appl. Phys.   30 , 1135 – 1140 ( 1959 ).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

Y. Takaisi , “ Note on the drag on a circular cylinder moving with low speeds in a semi-infiniite liquid bounded by a plane wall ,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan   11 , 1004 – 1008 ( 1955 ).

Ajito, K.

K. Ajito and K. Torimitsu , “ Single nanoparticle trapping using a Raman tweezers microscope ,” Appl. Spec.   56 , 541 – 544 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

N. B. Simpson , K. Dholakia , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: An optical spanner ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 52 – 54 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Banall, D. M.

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Batchelor, G. K.

G. K. Batchelor , “ Slender-body theory for particles of arbitrary cross-section in Stokes flow ,” J. Fluid Mech.   44 , 419 ( 1970 ).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Cheong, F. C.

T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Chiou, A.

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

Collins, R. J.

R. J. Collins , “ Mechanism and defect responsible for edge emission in CdS ,” J. Appl. Phys.   30 , 1135 – 1140 ( 1959 ).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier , “ Structure of optical vortices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 133,901 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. E. Curtis , B. A. Koss , and D. G. Grier , “ Dynamic holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Commun.   207 (1–6), 169 – 175 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

Duan, X. F.

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dufresne, E. R.

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier , “ Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical elements ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   69 , 1974 – 1977 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gahagan, K. T.

Grier, D. G.

Gruzberg, I.

He, H.

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N. R.

H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J. T.

J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis , B. A. Koss , and D. G. Grier , “ Dynamic holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Commun.   207 (1–6), 169 – 175 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Ladavac, K.

Lee, S.-H.

Lieber, C. M.

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lieber , “ Nanoscale science and technology: Building a big future from small things ,” MRS Bulletin   28 , 486 – 491 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber , “ A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires ,” Science   279 , 208 – 211 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.-H.

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacVicar, I.

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Meyhofer, E.

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morales, A. M.

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber , “ A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires ,” Science   279 , 208 – 211 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueth, D. M.

O’Neil, A. T.

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Odom, T. W.

J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

N. B. Simpson , K. Dholakia , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: An optical spanner ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 52 – 54 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Plewa, J.

Polin, M.

Roichman, Y.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Samuelson, L.

L. Samuelson , “ Self-forming nanoscale devices ,” Materials Today   6 , 22 – 31 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Segawa, Y.

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Simpson, N. B.

N. B. Simpson , K. Dholakia , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: An optical spanner ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 52 – 54 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Sow, C. H.

T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundbeck, S.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Takaisi, Y.

Y. Takaisi , “ Note on the drag on a circular cylinder moving with low speeds in a semi-infiniite liquid bounded by a plane wall ,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan   11 , 1004 – 1008 ( 1955 ).

Tanner, E.

Torimitsu, K.

K. Ajito and K. Torimitsu , “ Single nanoparticle trapping using a Raman tweezers microscope ,” Appl. Spec.   56 , 541 – 544 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, B.

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. F.

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. F.

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whang, D.

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Zhong, L. W.

L. W. Zhong , “ Nanostructures of zinc oxide ,” Materials Today   7 , 26 – 33 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. T. Hu , T. W. Odom , and C. M. Lieber , “ Chemistry and physics in one dimension: Synthesis and properties of nanowires and nanotubes ,” Acc. Chem. Res.   32 , 435 – 445 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spec. (1)

K. Ajito and K. Torimitsu , “ Single nanoparticle trapping using a Raman tweezers microscope ,” Appl. Spec.   56 , 541 – 544 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. J. Collins , “ Mechanism and defect responsible for edge emission in CdS ,” J. Appl. Phys.   30 , 1135 – 1140 ( 1959 ).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. M. Banall , B. Ullrich , H. Sakai , and Y. Segawa , “ Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature ,” J. Cryst. Growth   214/215 , 1015 – 1018 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

G. K. Batchelor , “ Slender-body theory for particles of arbitrary cross-section in Stokes flow ,” J. Fluid Mech.   44 , 419 ( 1970 ).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

H. He , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Optical particle trapping with higher-order doughnut beams produced using high efficiency computer generated holograms ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 217 – 223 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

N. B. Simpson , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 2485 – 2491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Japan (1)

Y. Takaisi , “ Note on the drag on a circular cylinder moving with low speeds in a semi-infiniite liquid bounded by a plane wall ,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan   11 , 1004 – 1008 ( 1955 ).

Materials Today (2)

L. Samuelson , “ Self-forming nanoscale devices ,” Materials Today   6 , 22 – 31 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. W. Zhong , “ Nanostructures of zinc oxide ,” Materials Today   7 , 26 – 33 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

MRS Bulletin (1)

C. M. Lieber , “ Nanoscale science and technology: Building a big future from small things ,” MRS Bulletin   28 , 486 – 491 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Whang , S. Jin , Y. Wu , and C. M. Lieber , “ Large-scale hierarchical organization of nanowire arrays for integrated nanosystems ,” Nano Lett.   3 , 1255 – 1259 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. Yu , F. C. Cheong , and C. H. Sow , “ The manipulation and assembly of CuO nanorods with line optical tweezers ,” Nanotechnology   15 , 1732 – 1736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

X. F. Duan , Y. Huang , Y. Cui , J. F. Wang , and C. M. Lieber , “ Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices ,” Nature   409 , 66 – 69 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. C. Huang , C. F. Wang , D. S. Mehta , and A. Chiou , “ Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers ,” Opt. Commun.   195 (1–4), 41 – 48 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

J. E. Curtis , B. A. Koss , and D. G. Grier , “ Dynamic holographic optical tweezers ,” Opt. Commun.   207 (1–6), 169 – 175 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen , M. W. Beijersbergen , R. J. C. Spreeuw , and J. P. Woerdman , “ Orbital angular-momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes ,” Phys. Rev. A   45 , 8185 – 8189 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. He , M. E. J. Friese , N. R. Heckenberg , and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop , “ Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   75 , 826 – 829 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. O’Neil , I. MacVicar , L. Allen , and M. J. Padgett , “ Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 053,601 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier , “ Structure of optical vortices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 133,901 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. P. Joglekar , H.-H. Liu , E. Meyhofer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier , “ Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical elements ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   69 , 1974 – 1977 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber , “ A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires ,” Science   279 , 208 – 211 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Holographically trapping semiconductor nanowires. (a) The light from a frequency-doubled solid-state laser is imprinted with a computer-generated hologram by a phase-shifting spatial light modulator (SLM) before being relayed to the input pupil of a high-numerical-aperture objective lens, which focuses the light into an array of optical traps, shown in (b). (c) An individual semiconductor nanowire can be localized by multiple optical traps, whose intersection with the wire typically is visualized by intense laser-induced fluorescence, as in (d).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Translation and rotation of semiconductor nanowires by holographic trap arrays. (a) Two free-floating semiconductor nanowires translated toward each other with parallel arrays of holographic optical traps. One wire is held stationary in one line of traps while the other is translated by moving a second line of traps in discrete steps of 700 nm. The traps in each line are separated by 0.4 μm and each trap is powered by 3 mW. (b) Rotating a semiconductor nanowire by rotating an array of traps in discrete steps of 5°. The optically trapped CdS nanowires in these sequences appear bright because of photoluminescence excited by the strongly focused optical traps. Because these images are created with a filter that blocks the bandgap emission of CdS [16], the luminescence can be attributed to emission from defect sites in the CdS material [17].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Rotating a semiconductor nanowire with the orbital angular momentum flux of a helical mode of light. (a) When transmitted to the SLM, the helical phase mask φ(r,θ) =ℓθ transforms the wavefronts of a TEM00 laser mode into an -fold helix. This helical beam focuses into the ring-like optical trap, shown in (b). The orbital angular momentum density in this trap can be used to rotate a semiconductor nanowire, as shown in the sequence of photographs in (c), which are separated by 1 sec intervals. The dashed circle shows the position of an = 30 optical vortex at 1 W.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transforming nanowires with intense focused beams of light. (a) Cutting a semiconductor nanowire with an optical scalpel. A bent nanowire is brought to the focus of an optical trap powered by 0.5 W. An exposure time of 100 ms results in a clean cut at the bend. (b) Fusing two semiconductor nanowires into a free-floating assembly. The two nanowires are first trapped and then manipulated to form a T-junction. An optical trap powered by 100 mW is then focused on the junction for 1 s to non-destructively fuse the wires. The T-junction then floats freely once the traps are extinguished.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Assembly of rhombus constructed from semiconductor nanowires using holographic optical traps. (a) A nanowire is translated towards an existing structure created earlier by trapping and fusing two nanowires. (b) The long nanowire is then cut with a pulsed optical scalpel. (c) The resulting free-floating nanowire piece then is brought back to the partially completed structure. (d) The free-floating structure is completed by fusing both ends of the fourth nanowire.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = 4 πη ( ε + 0.193 ε 2 + 0.215 ε 2 ) Lu ,
F ( h ) = F ln ( 2 h a ) ,

Metrics