Abstract

A blood clot (thrombus) that becomes lodged in the arterial network supplying the brain can cause an ischemic stroke, depriving the brain of oxygen and often resulting in permanent disability. As an alternative to conventional clot-dissolving drug treatment, we are developing an intravascular laser-activated therapeutic device using shape memory polymer (SMP) to mechanically retrieve the thrombus and restore blood flow to the brain. Thermal imaging and computer simulation were used to characterize the optical and photothermal behavior of the SMP microactuator. Deployment of the SMP device in an in vitro thrombotic vascular occlusion model demonstrated the clinical treatment concept.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2005 Update (American Heart Association, Dallas, 2005), http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1105390918119HDSStats2005Update.pdf.
  2. D. O. Kessel and J. V. Patel, “Current trends in thrombolysis: Implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology,” Clin. Radiol. 60, 413–424 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevalence of disabilities and associated health conditions among adults-United States, 1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report50, 120–125 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  4. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group., “Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke,”N. Engl and J. Med,  333, 1581–1588 (1995).
  5. D. M. Bravata, “Intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: optimising its use in routine clinical practice,” CNS Drugs 19, 295–302 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  15. M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. Data from Epolin website, http://www.epolin.com/p4000.html.
  18. W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II,M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 33.3–33.101.
  19. J. D. Lytle, “Polymeric optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 34.1–34.21.
  20. M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. E. Carr and S. L. Zekert, “Abnormal clot retraction, altered fibrin structure, and normal platelet function in multiple myeloma,” Am. J. Physiol. 266, H1195–H1201 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  22. D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. K. Sardar and L. B. Levy, “Optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med Sci 13, 106–111 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, B. D. Ratner, A. S. Hoffman, F. J. Schoen, and J. E. Lemons, eds. (Academic Press, San Diego, 1996), p. 469.
  25. M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

2005 (3)

D. O. Kessel and J. V. Patel, “Current trends in thrombolysis: Implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology,” Clin. Radiol. 60, 413–424 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Bravata, “Intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: optimising its use in routine clinical practice,” CNS Drugs 19, 295–302 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. K. Sardar and L. B. Levy, “Optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med Sci 13, 106–111 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group., “Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke,”N. Engl and J. Med,  333, 1581–1588 (1995).

1994 (1)

M. E. Carr and S. L. Zekert, “Abnormal clot retraction, altered fibrin structure, and normal platelet function in multiple myeloma,” Am. J. Physiol. 266, H1195–H1201 (1994).
[PubMed]

Ahuja, A.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnwell, S.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, J. D.

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellon, R. J.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Berger, R. M.

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berlis, A.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bravata, D. M.

D. M. Bravata, “Intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: optimising its use in routine clinical practice,” CNS Drugs 19, 295–302 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brophy, D. F.

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueckmann, H. J.

T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budzik, R. F.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Callahan, F.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, M. E.

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Carr and S. L. Zekert, “Abnormal clot retraction, altered fibrin structure, and normal platelet function in multiple myeloma,” Am. J. Physiol. 266, H1195–H1201 (1994).
[PubMed]

Chopko, B. W.

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, W. M.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duckwiler, G. R.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engl, N.

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group., “Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke,”N. Engl and J. Med,  333, 1581–1588 (1995).

Frazee, J.

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frederick, L. S.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furlan, A.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furlan, A. J.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebel, J. M.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gehr, T. W. B.

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gemert, M. J. C. van

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

Gent, M.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gobin, Y. P.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grobelny, T.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamann, G. F.

T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, T. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II,M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 33.3–33.101.

Hart, R. G.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, M.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higashida, R.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higashida, R. T.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahan, R.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungreis, C. A.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kase, C.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kase, C. S.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerber, C. W.

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kessel, D. O.

D. O. Kessel and J. V. Patel, “Current trends in thrombolysis: Implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology,” Clin. Radiol. 60, 413–424 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kidwell, C. S.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnaswami, A.

M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leary, M. C.

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

Levy, L. B.

D. K. Sardar and L. B. Levy, “Optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med Sci 13, 106–111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lutsep, H.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lytle, J. D.

J. D. Lytle, “Polymeric optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 34.1–34.21.

Maitland, D. J.

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, E. J.

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mayer, T. E.

T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med, J.

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group., “Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke,”N. Engl and J. Med,  333, 1581–1588 (1995).

Metzger, M. F.

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Molinari, G. F.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norbash, A.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norbash, A. M.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Patel, J. V.

D. O. Kessel and J. V. Patel, “Current trends in thrombolysis: Implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology,” Clin. Radiol. 60, 413–424 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pergolizzi, R. S.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Pessin, M.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pessin, M. S.

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickering, J. W.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

Pile-Spellman, J.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putman, C. M.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Redekop, G.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinking, G. F.

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rivera, F.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, H. C.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, R. S.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowley, H.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowley, H. A.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar and L. B. Levy, “Optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med Sci 13, 106–111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saver, J. L.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, G. A.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schumacher, M.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schumann, D.

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

Segal, A.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sila, C. A.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, F.

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starkman, S.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O. T.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II,M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 33.3–33.101.

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II,M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 33.3–33.101.

Vinuela, F.

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wechsler, L.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wechsler, L. R.

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

Wilson, T. S.

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Woolfenden, A.

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zekert, S. L.

M. E. Carr and S. L. Zekert, “Abnormal clot retraction, altered fibrin structure, and normal platelet function in multiple myeloma,” Am. J. Physiol. 266, H1195–H1201 (1994).
[PubMed]

Zoppo, G. J. del

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. (1)

R. J. Bellon, C. M. Putman, R. F. Budzik, R. S. Pergolizzi, G. F. Reinking, and A. M. Norbash, “Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 22, 526–530 (2001).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

M. E. Carr and S. L. Zekert, “Abnormal clot retraction, altered fibrin structure, and normal platelet function in multiple myeloma,” Am. J. Physiol. 266, H1195–H1201 (1994).
[PubMed]

Ann. Emerg. Med. (1)

M. C. Leary, J. L. Saver, Y. P. Gobin, R. Jahan, G. R. Duckwiler, F. Vinuela, C. S. Kidwell, J. Frazee, and S. Starkman, “Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke,” Ann. Emerg. Med. 41, 838–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomedical Microdevices (1)

M. F. Metzger, T. S. Wilson, D. Schumann, D. L. Matthews, and D. J. Maitland, “Mechanical properties of mechanical actuator for treating ischemic stroke,” Biomedical Microdevices 4, 89–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Clin. Radiol. (1)

D. O. Kessel and J. V. Patel, “Current trends in thrombolysis: Implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology,” Clin. Radiol. 60, 413–424 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CNS Drugs (1)

D. M. Bravata, “Intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: optimising its use in routine clinical practice,” CNS Drugs 19, 295–302 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabet. Med. (1)

M. E. Carr, A. Krishnaswami, and E. J. Martin, “Platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) are elevated in diabetic patients with chest pain,” Diabet. Med. 19, 862–866 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. (1)

C. W. Kerber, J. D. Barr, R. M. Berger, and B. W. Chopko, “Snare retrieval of intracranial thrombus in patients with acute stroke,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 13, 1269–1274 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

A. Furlan, R. Higashida, L. Wechsler, M. Gent, H. Rowley, C. Kase, M. Pessin, A. Ahuja, F. Callahan, W. M. Clark, F. Silver, and F. Rivera, “Intra-arterial pro-urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 282, 2003–2011 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Las. Surg. Med. (1)

D. J. Maitland, M. F. Metzger, D. Schumann, A. Lee, and T. S. Wilson, “Photothermal properties of shape memory polymer micro-actuators for treating stroke,” Las. Surg. Med. 30, 1–11 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med Sci (1)

D. K. Sardar and L. B. Levy, “Optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med Sci 13, 106–111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Neurology (1)

C. S. Kase, A. J. Furlan, L. R. Wechsler, R. T. Higashida, H. A. Rowley, R. G. Hart, G. F. Molinari, L. S. Frederick, H. C. Roberts, J. M. Gebel, C. A. Sila, G. A. Schulz, R. S. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial,” Neurology 57, 1603–1610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroke (4)

Y. P. Gobin, S. Starkman, G. R. Duckwiler, T. Grobelny, C. S. Kidwell, R. Jahan, J. Pile-Spellman, A. Segal, F. Vinuela, and J. L. Saver, “MERCI 1: A phase 1 study of mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 35, 2848–2854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berlis, H. Lutsep, S. Barnwell, A. Norbash, L. Wechsler, C. A. Jungreis, A. Woolfenden, G. Redekop, M. Hartmann, and M. Schumacher, “Mechanical thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with endovascular photoacoustic recanalization,” Stroke 35, 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Mayer, G. F. Hamann, and H. J. Brueckmann, “Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal,” Stroke 33, 2232–2235 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. del Zoppo, R. T. Higashida, A. J. Furlan, M. S. Pessin, H. A. Rowley, and M. Gent, “PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.Stroke 29, 4–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrombosis Journal (1)

D. F. Brophy, E. J. Martin, T. W. B. Gehr, and M. E. Carr, “A hypothesis-generating study to evaluate platelet activity in diabetics with chronic kidney disease,” Thrombosis Journal 3, 3 (2005), http://www.thrombosisjournal.com/content/3/1/3.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, B. D. Ratner, A. S. Hoffman, F. J. Schoen, and J. E. Lemons, eds. (Academic Press, San Diego, 1996), p. 469.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, and O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 789–829.

Data from Epolin website, http://www.epolin.com/p4000.html.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II,M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 33.3–33.101.

J. D. Lytle, “Polymeric optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995), pp. 34.1–34.21.

American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2005 Update (American Heart Association, Dallas, 2005), http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1105390918119HDSStats2005Update.pdf.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevalence of disabilities and associated health conditions among adults-United States, 1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report50, 120–125 (2001).
[PubMed]

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group., “Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke,”N. Engl and J. Med,  333, 1581–1588 (1995).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (1204 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (447 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (2211 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Depiction of endovascular thrombectomy using the laser-activated SMP microactuator coupled to an optical fiber. (a) In its secondary straight rod form, the microactuator is delivered through a catheter distal to the thrombotic vascular occlusion. (b) The microactuator is then transformed into its primary corkscrew form by laser heating. (c) The deployed microactuator is retracted to capture the thrombus.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SMP microactuator coupled to an optical fiber shown in its (a) secondary straight rod and (b) primary corkscrew forms. The maximum diameter of the SMP corkscrew is approximately 3 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Socket joint between the optical fiber and the SMP microactuator. The polyimide buffer was burned off and the optical fiber was cleaved prior to insertion into the epoxy-filled socket. The epoxy, whose refractive index is between that of the optical fiber core and that of the SMP, was chosen to provide high coupling efficiency while maintaining a strong bond.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mandrel used to set the primary corkscrew shape of the SMP microactuator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flow system used to test feasibility of the SMP device for intravascular thrombectomy. Flow is in the counterclockwise direction. A: main vessel of carotid bifurcation model; B and C: branches of carotid bifurcation model; TB: Touhy Borst valve; FP: flow probe; FM: flow meter; PP: peristaltic pump; H2O: water reservoir.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Computer simulation of laser light propagation through the SMP corkscrew in air. The laser power exiting the optical fiber is 1.00 W. Virtual detectors (a-p) indicate the spatial light distribution (irradiance) at various cross-sectional locations along the corkscrew. Total power and peak irradiance are noted for each detector. The first detector (a) is positioned at the optical fiber tip.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.2 MB) Real-time thermal camera video of laser actuation of the SMP microactuator in air. The laser power was 0.60 W. The maximum diameter of the SMP corkscrew is approximately 3 mm (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(448 KB) Real-time video of laser actuation of the SMP device in static water at body temperature.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(2.2 MB) Real-time video of in vitro thrombectomy using the SMP device in a bifurcated vessel model. Water flow is from left to right.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = A + B ( λ 2 0.028 ) + C ( λ 2 0.028 ) 2 + D λ 2 + E λ 4
Loss ( % ) = 100 { 1 [ 1 ( n f n e n f + n e ) 2 ] [ 1 ( n e n s n e + n s ) 2 ] }
Δ T = Pt / cρV

Metrics