Abstract

A new-type of three-dimensional (3D) display system based on two different techniques, image floating and integral imaging, is proposed. The image floating is an antiquated 3D display technique, in which a large convex lens or a concave mirror is used to display the image of a real object to observer. The electro-floating system, which does not use a real object, requires a volumetric display part in order to present 3D moving pictures. Integral imaging is an autostereoscopic technique consisting of a lens array and a two-dimensional display device. The integral imaging method can be adapted for use in an electro-floating display system because the integrated image has volumetric characteristics within the viewing angle. The proposed system combines the merits of the two techniques such as an impressive feel of depth and the facility to assemble. In this paper, the viewing characteristics of the two techniques are defined and analyzed for the optimal design of the proposed system. The basic experiments for assembling the proposed system were performed and the results are presented. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D television.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Comptes-Rendus

G. Lippmann, "La photographie integrale," Comptes-Rendus 146, 446-451, Academie des Sciences (1908).

IEEE LEOS 2003

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in Technical Digest of The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2003), Tucson, Arizona, USA, Oct. 2003, vol. 2, pp. 730-731.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Japanese J. Appl. Phys.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 44, pp. L71-L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 43, pp. 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

T. Okoshi, "Three-dimensional displays," Proc. IEEE 68, pp. 548-564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Park, and S. W. Min, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 4660, pp. 146-154 (2002).

Stereoscopic Displays and Appls. XVI

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system based on integral imaging technique," in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XVI, Electronics Imaging, paper 5664A-37, San Jose, CA (2005).

Wkshp 3-D Imaging Media Technology 2000

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Computer-generated integral photography," in Proceedings of The 6th International Workshop on 3-D Imaging Media Technology, Seoul, Korea, July 2000, pp. 21-28.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2260 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of image floating

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Viewing area of floating system

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Concept of an integral imaging system

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image depth of integrated image (Each gap between neighboring cherries is 15 mm.)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scheme for the proposed system and experimental setup

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The solids to be displayed and the integrated images

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Floating image at different view points

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Verification of solidity of floating image [Media 1]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Thickness of floating image

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Geometry to define flipping distance

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Floating image for different sizes

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Floating image using a magnification factor of 2

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of the experimental setup

Equations (7)

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Ω fl _ whole = 2 arctan ( w s fl 2 L fl ) ,
Ω fl = 2 arctan ( w 2 L fl ) ,
M fl = s fl s ob = L fl L ob = f fl L ob f fl = L fl f fl f fl ,
Δ z m = 2 l 2 g P L P X ,
Ω ii = 2 arctan ( P L 2 g ) ,
Δ t fl = Δ z m ( 1 M ) 2 ( Δ z m 2 f fl ) 2 ,
d = P L f ii l ,

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