Abstract

A system for full-field laser Doppler blood flow imaging has been developed and tested on biomedical samples. The new imaging system allows 2D flow maps or monitoring flux signals to be obtained from a plurality of measured points simultaneously by using a 2D array of photodetectors. The detection part of the system is based on an intelligent CMOS camera with a built-in digital signal processor and memory. The imaging time of the system is as much as to 4 times faster than for the conventional scanning laser Doppler imager. The performance of the system was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The first measurement results with this new system on human skin are reported.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging using an integrating CMOS image sensor

Alexandre Serov and Theo Lasser
Opt. Express 13(17) 6416-6428 (2005)

Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

Alexander Serov, Wiendelt Steenbergen, and Frits de Mul
Opt. Lett. 27(5) 300-302 (2002)

Real-time full field laser Doppler imaging

Marcel Leutenegger, Erica Martin-Williams, Pascal Harbi, Tyler Thacher, Wassim Raffoul, Marc André, Antonio Lopez, Philippe Lasser, and Theo Lasser
Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6) 1470-1477 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).
  2. K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–193 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, and T. Ohura, “Evaluation of blood flow by laser speckle image sensing. Part 1,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5321–5325 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22, R35–R66 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Bonner and R. Nossal, “Model for laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2097–2107 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622–630 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1698–1698 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1698–1698 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

Bonner, R.

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22, R35–R66 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Byrne, P. O.

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622–630 (2001).
[Crossref]

Essex, T. J. H.

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fossum, E. R.

E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1698–1698 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujii, H.

He, X. W.

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ikawa, H.

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jakobsson, A.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G .E.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nohira, K.

Nossal, R.

Öberg, P. Å.

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

Ohura, T.

Richards, G.

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Serov, A.

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622–630 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, A. P.

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Steenbergen, W.

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622–630 (2001).
[Crossref]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wårdell, K.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309–316 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1698–1698 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surgery Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,” Opt. Lett. 25, 300–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22, R35–R66 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for full-field laser Doppler flow imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flux response of the CMOS imager in respect to velocity measured for different Intralipid concentrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time traces of the perfusion signal obtained with the full-field laser Doppler imaging system. The decays in the perfusion signal are due to (left) the indicated occlusion of the upper arm and (right) the indicated deep breath, a so-called Valsava maneuver.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

128×256 pixel perfusion images of the finger obtained before, during, and after occlusion of the upper arm. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

64×64 pixel perfusion images of the finger obtained before, during, and after occlusion of the upper arm. The arrow indicates a small wound on the finger where the perfusion is altered by healing. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

256×256 pixel perfusion images directly after, 3 min after, and 10 min after the immersion of the index finger in the ice water. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Perfusion = C V rms M 1 = 0 ν S ( ν ) d ν ,
Concentration = C M 0 = 0 S ( ν ) d ν ,
Speed M 1 M 0 ,
S ( ν ) = 0 I ( t ) exp ( i 2 π ν t ) d t 2 .

Metrics