Abstract

We report on the measurement of an Erbium-fiber oscillator’s carrier-envelope-offset frequency using an extruded SF6 photonic crystal fiber for the generation of a more than two octave-spanning supercontinuum from 400 nm to beyond 1750 nm. A modified type of f-2f-interferometer was employed, beating the frequency doubled input signal of the fiber oscillator with the supercontinuum to generate the carrier-envelope-offset beat. Controlling the fiber oscillator’s pump power with an electronic feedback loop, we phase-locked the carrier-envelope-offset frequency to an external reference source. The resulting residual phase excursions correspond to fractional frequency instabilities of the oscillator’s frequency comb of the order of 10-16 for averaging times longer than 10 s.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A.E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D.H. Sutter, and U. Keller, �??Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,�?? 69, 327-332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T.W. Hänsch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.St.J. Russell, �??An optical frequency synthesiser for precision spectroscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264�??2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D.J. Jones, S.A. Diddams, J.K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R.S. Windeler, J.L. Hall, and S.T. Cundiff, �??Carrier envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency syntheses,�?? Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H.R. Telle, J.K. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, and A.J. Stentz, �??Phase-coherent frequency measurement of the Ca intercombination line at 657 nm with a Kerr-lens mode locked femtosecond laser,�?? Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Hollberg, C.W. Oates, E.A. Curtis, E.N. Ivanov, S.A. Diddams, T. Udem, H.G. Robinson, J.C. Bergquist, R.J. Rafac, W.M. Itano, R.E. Drullinger, and D.J. Wineland, �??Optical Frequency Standards and Measurement,�?? IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 37, 1502-1513 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, C. Spielmann, G.A. Reider, N. Milosevic, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, �??Sub-femtosecond X-ray pulse generation and measurement,�?? Appl. Phys B 74, S3-S9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Rauschenberger, T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, "Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Express 10, 1404-1410 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, �??Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and self-referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,�?? Opt. Express 11, 594-600 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-594".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-594
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida �?? Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1516-1518 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, H.R. Telle �??Frequency stabilization of mode-locked Erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,�?? Appl. Phys. B (to be published)
  11. V.V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A.K. George, W.H. Reeves, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, F.G. Omenetto, and A.J. Taylor: �??Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Tamura, E.P. Ippen, H.A. Haus, and L.E. Nelson, �??77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode locked all-fiber ring laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 18, 1080-1082 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3196".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3196
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys B (1)

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, C. Spielmann, G.A. Reider, N. Milosevic, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, �??Sub-femtosecond X-ray pulse generation and measurement,�?? Appl. Phys B 74, S3-S9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H.R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A.E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D.H. Sutter, and U. Keller, �??Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,�?? 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, H.R. Telle �??Frequency stabilization of mode-locked Erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,�?? Appl. Phys. B (to be published)

IEEE J. Quant. Elec. (1)

L. Hollberg, C.W. Oates, E.A. Curtis, E.N. Ivanov, S.A. Diddams, T. Udem, H.G. Robinson, J.C. Bergquist, R.J. Rafac, W.M. Itano, R.E. Drullinger, and D.J. Wineland, �??Optical Frequency Standards and Measurement,�?? IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 37, 1502-1513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

J. Rauschenberger, T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, "Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Express 10, 1404-1410 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, �??Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and self-referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,�?? Opt. Express 11, 594-600 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-594".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-594
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V.V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A.K. George, W.H. Reeves, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, F.G. Omenetto, and A.J. Taylor: �??Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520
[CrossRef]

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3196".</a>http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3196
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

K. Tamura, E.P. Ippen, H.A. Haus, and L.E. Nelson, �??77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode locked all-fiber ring laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 18, 1080-1082 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida �?? Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1516-1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H.R. Telle, J.K. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, and A.J. Stentz, �??Phase-coherent frequency measurement of the Ca intercombination line at 657 nm with a Kerr-lens mode locked femtosecond laser,�?? Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T.W. Hänsch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.St.J. Russell, �??An optical frequency synthesiser for precision spectroscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264�??2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D.J. Jones, S.A. Diddams, J.K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R.S. Windeler, J.L. Hall, and S.T. Cundiff, �??Carrier envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency syntheses,�?? Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup of the simplified f-2f-interferometer for measurement of the carrierenvelope- offset-frequency: Iso = Faraday isolator; 50/50=50/50-fiber coupler; PCF=SF6 photonic crystal fiber; PPLN= periodically poled Lithium-Niobate crystal; PBS= polarizing beam splitter; BS=50/50-beam splitter; SM800= single-mode fiber for 800 nm; PD= Silicon PIN photo diode; Amp =30 dB radio frequency amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RF spectrum measured after the 800 nm single-mode-fiber at a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz. The lower peaks (~35 dB about noise floor) at 13 MHz and 46 MHz are the carrier-envelope-offset-frequency beats and the narrow big peak corresponds to the oscillators repetition rate of ~59 MHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic setup for measurement and stabilization of the oscillator’s carrier-envelopeoffset frequency; PD= silicon photo diode; Amp=RF amplifier; BP= band pass filter; PLL= phase-locked loop; FC= digital frequency counter; FD= binary frequency divider; FG= frequency generator; LD= pump diode of oscillator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal evolution of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency: (a) Free-running oscillator with a drift of 170 kHz over 50 s for an averaging time of 1 s; (b) Oscillator with feedback control on the pump power with a division factor of 16; the inset graphic shows on smaller scale the changes for an averaging time of 10 s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Standard-Allan-deviation of fractional frequency fluctuations in the optical domain for the stabilized oscillator system.

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