Abstract

We apply direct electron beam writing to fabricate corrugated sidewall Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides and demonstrate multi-channel passband filters based on a phase-shifted design. Experimental results are compared with numerical fittings to analyze the impact of signal polarization and waveguide cladding material upon device performance.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Canning and M.G. Sceats, “Phase-shifted periodic distributed structure in optical fibers by UV post processing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1344–1345 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Design and realization of multiple quarter-wave phase-shifts UV-written bandpass filters in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1433–1437 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  5. W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

2004 (1)

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Design and realization of multiple quarter-wave phase-shifts UV-written bandpass filters in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1433–1437 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Canning and M.G. Sceats, “Phase-shifted periodic distributed structure in optical fibers by UV post processing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.H.

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alferness, R.C.

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bakhti, F.

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Design and realization of multiple quarter-wave phase-shifts UV-written bandpass filters in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1433–1437 (1997).
[Crossref]

Blomquist, R.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.L.

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M.G. Sceats, “Phase-shifted periodic distributed structure in optical fibers by UV post processing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, K.E.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Divino, M.D.

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Everall, L.A.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fallon, R.W.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

Glass, C.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Han, S.G.

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishii, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

Joyner, C.H.

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.G.

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.J.

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.H.

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Martyak, M.J.R.

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

Menders, J.

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R.A.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oh, M.C.

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohiso, Y.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

Poga, C.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sansonetti, P.

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Design and realization of multiple quarter-wave phase-shifts UV-written bandpass filters in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1433–1437 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sceats, M.G.

J. Canning and M.G. Sceats, “Phase-shifted periodic distributed structure in optical fibers by UV post processing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

Segawa, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sugden, K.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.C.

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

Williamss, J.A.R.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yacoubian, A.

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

Yin, S.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R.C. Alferness, C.H. Joyner, M.D. Divino, M.J.R. Martyak, and L.L. Buhl, “Narrowband grating resonator filters in InGaAsP/InP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 125–127 (1986).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, H.J. Lee, and S.G. Han, “Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1559–1561 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.C. Oh, H.J. Lee, M.H. Lee, J.H. Ahn, S.G. Han, and H.G. Kim “Tunable wavelength filters with Bragg gratings in polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2543–2546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, Y. Ohiso, T. Ishii, and H. Suzuki, “Apodised sampled grating using InGaAsP/InP deepridge waveguide with vertical-groove surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 40, 804–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Canning and M.G. Sceats, “Phase-shifted periodic distributed structure in optical fibers by UV post processing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W.C. Wang, M. Fisher, A. Yacoubian, and J. Menders, “Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters in polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 548–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, “Integrated multichannel OADMs using polymer Bragg grating MZIs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416–1418 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Design and realization of multiple quarter-wave phase-shifts UV-written bandpass filters in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1433–1437 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J.A.R. Williamss, R.W. Fallon, L.A. Everall, L.A. Everall, and K.E. Chisholm, “Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1424–1432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams of (a) polymeric waveguide gratings with two phase shift defects, and (b) the corresponding effective refractive index profile along the propagation direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of a polymeric grating device with a waveguide width W of 1.5 µm, grating period Λ of 500 nm, and grating depth D of 600 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of a uniform grating filter (a) TE polarization, neff=1.4992 and Δn=0.0090 from fitting results (b) TM polarization, neff=1.5011 and Δn=0.0067 from fitting results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectrum of a passband filter with phase shift defects for TE polarization (a) without the index matching fluid, for TE polarization neff=1.4923 and Δn=0.0050 from fitting results, for TM polarization neff=1.4960 and Δn=0.0042 from fitting results (b) with the index matching fluid as upper cladding, for TE polarization neff=1.5016 and Δn=0.0070 from fitting results, for TM polarization neff=1.5040 and Δn=0.0064 from fitting results.

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