Abstract

We report the demonstration of the first silicon Raman laser. Experimentally, pulsed Raman laser emission at 1675 nm with 25 MHz repetition rate is demonstrated using a silicon waveguide as the gain medium. The laser has a clear threshold at 9 W peak pump pulse power and a slope efficiency of 8.5%.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).
  3. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)
  4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
  5. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
  6. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
  7. T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)
  10. V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)
  11. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
    [CrossRef]
  12. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4
  13. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3
  14. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
  17. A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).
  19. P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)

Opt. Express (6)

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).

Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

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