Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of rib chalcogenide waveguides produced by dry etching with CF4 and O2. The high index contrast waveguides (Δn ~ 1) show a minimum propagation loss of 0.25 dB/cm. The high refractive nonlinearity of ~ 100 times silica in As2S3 allowed observation of a π phase shift due to self-phase modulation of an 8 ps duration 1573 nm pulse in a 5 cm long waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

ACTA Optica Sinica

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, "Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses," ACTA Optica Sinica 23 (Supplement 363), 363-364 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Ramachandran, and S.G. Bishop, "Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77(11), 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., "The application of the helicon source to plasma processing," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9(2), 310-317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, "High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices," Opt. Eng. 38(2), 214-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, "The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides," to be published.

G. P. Agrawal, "Self-phase modulation," in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, P.L. Kelley, I. P. Kaminow, G. P. Agrawal, ed. (Academic, 2001).

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, "Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices," in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

R. E. Slusher, and B. J. Eggleton, "Chalcogenide glasses," in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher, B. J. Eggleton, ed. (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images showing the profile of As2S3 waveguides etched by helicon plasma using Al masks (a) showing vertical sidewall but corner damage resulted from weak adhesion between Al and As2S3 layer; (b) rough Al mask resulted in rough waveguide sidewall; (c) the cross-section showing smooth corner by inserting a thin photoresist layer; (d) smooth Al mask as well as vertical and smooth waveguide sidewall.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrographs showing the profile of As2S3 waveguides etched by ICP using photoresist mask (a) As2S3 waveguide with photoresist mask (b) coating with polysiloxane cladding, its width is well controlled as required.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) rib waveguide structure; (b) the output mode from As2S3 rib waveguide with a=4.2, b=1.8, and c=2.7 μm showing single mode propagation; (c) light transmission as a function of the waveguide length at 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectrum of input signal at 1573 nm; (b) spectral broadening corresponding to π phase shift and peak power 40 W in the waveguide

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