Abstract

We present a single beam Z-scan technique using an intense, broadband, white-light continuum (WLC) beam for the direct measurement of nonlinear absorption spectra. In order to demonstrate the validity of our technique, we compared the results of tetraaniline and Sudan 3 solutions obtained with WLC and conventional single wavelength light sources. Both approaches lead to the same nonlinear spectrum, indicating that the association of the Z-scan technique and the WLC source results in an useful method for the measurement of nonlinear spectra of both absorbing (saturable absorption or reverse saturable absorption) and transparent (two-photon absorption) samples.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. Albota, D. Beljone, J. -L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. -Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramanian, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, ཿDesign of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,ཿ Science 281, 1653 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, ཿExperiment and analysis of two-photon spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,ཿ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. S. He, T. ཿC. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, and L. ཿS. Tan, ཿNew technique for degenerate two-photon absorption spectral measurements using femtosecond continuum generation,ཿ Opt. Express 10, 566 (2002) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-566">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-566</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. R. Alfano, ed., The supercontinuum laser source, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
  5. J. C. Wang and J. K. Wang, ཿExperimental and theoretical analysis of white-light seeded, collinear phasematching, femtosecond optical parametric amplifiers,ཿ J. Opt. Soc. Am B 21, 45 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bellini and T. W. Hansch, ཿPhase-locked white-light continuum pulses: toward a universal optical frequency-comb synthesizer,ཿ Opt. Lett. 25, 1049 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. M. Wang, Y. H. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, and R. S. Windeler, ཿUltrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber,ཿ Opt. Lett. 28, 182 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, ཿSensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,ཿ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Mendonça, D. S. Santos, L. De Boni, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, and S. C. Zilio, ཿDichroism induced by photoisomerization of aniline tetramers in polymeric films,ཿ Adv. Mater. 12, 1126 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. L. Franzen, L. De Boni, D. S. Santos, C. R. Mendonça, and S. C. Zilio, ཿDynamic optical nonlinearities in aniline tetramers,ཿ J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published).
  11. A. Andrade, S. B. Yamaki, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, Tereza Z. Atvars, O. N. Oliveira, and C. R. Mendonça, ཿTwo-photon absorption in di-azobenzene compounds,ཿ Opt. Mater. (to be published).
  12. M. Drobizhev, A. Karotki, M. Kruk, and A. Rebane, ཿResonance enhancement of two-photon absorption in porphyrins,ཿ Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, ཿTwo-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,ཿ Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

C. R. Mendonça, D. S. Santos, L. De Boni, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, and S. C. Zilio, ཿDichroism induced by photoisomerization of aniline tetramers in polymeric films,ཿ Adv. Mater. 12, 1126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Drobizhev, A. Karotki, M. Kruk, and A. Rebane, ཿResonance enhancement of two-photon absorption in porphyrins,ཿ Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, ཿTwo-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,ཿ Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, ཿExperiment and analysis of two-photon spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,ཿ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, ཿSensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,ཿ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B

J. C. Wang and J. K. Wang, ཿExperimental and theoretical analysis of white-light seeded, collinear phasematching, femtosecond optical parametric amplifiers,ཿ J. Opt. Soc. Am B 21, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

P. L. Franzen, L. De Boni, D. S. Santos, C. R. Mendonça, and S. C. Zilio, ཿDynamic optical nonlinearities in aniline tetramers,ཿ J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

A. Andrade, S. B. Yamaki, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, Tereza Z. Atvars, O. N. Oliveira, and C. R. Mendonça, ཿTwo-photon absorption in di-azobenzene compounds,ཿ Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Science

M. Albota, D. Beljone, J. -L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. -Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramanian, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, ཿDesign of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,ཿ Science 281, 1653 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. R. Alfano, ed., The supercontinuum laser source, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for WLC and single wavelength Z-scan measurements. The removable mirror is used to switch from discrete to WLC Z-scan, which use a photo-detector or a spectrometer, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical spectrum of white light generated in water after passing through the low-pass filter (solid line) and chirp of the WLC measured with the OKE cross-correlation technique with a gate pulse at 700 nm (triangles).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Linear (dashed line) and nonlinear absorption spectra of (a) aniline tetramers and (b) Sudan 3 solutions. The solid line and the points were obtained with WLC and discrete Z-scan techniques, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three-energy-level diagram used to model the nonlinear optical processes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Linear (dashed line) and two-photon absorption spectra of Sudan 3 solution. The solid line and the squares were obtained with WLC and discrete Z-scan techniques, respectively.

Metrics