Abstract

In this paper we present a full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers. A new mode solver is described which uses Yee�??s 2-D mesh and an index averaging technique. The modal characteristics are calculated for both conventional optical fibers and microstructured optical fibers. Comparison with previous finite difference mode solvers and other numerical methods is made and excellent agreement is achieved.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  30. S. Dey and R. Mittra, �??A conformal finite-difference time-domain technique for modeling cylindrical dielectric resonators,�?? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1717-1739 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Midrio, M. P. Singh, and C. G. Someda, �??The space filling mode of holey fibers: an analytical vectorial solution,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1031-1037 (2000).
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  34. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, �??Analysis of the space filling modes of photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 8, 547-554 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-10-547">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-10-547</a>
  35. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C.McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, �??Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 488-490 (2001).
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  37. M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, Jr., �??Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 229-231 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, �??Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, �??Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001)
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiba and K.Saitoh, �??Numerical verification of degeneracy in hexagonal photonic crystal fibers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313-1315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. (1)

M. S. Stern, �??Semivectorial polarized finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles,�?? IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

K. S. Yee, �??Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell�??s equations in isotropic media,�?? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 14, 302-307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

S. Dey and R. Mittra, �??A conformal finite-difference time-domain technique for modeling cylindrical dielectric resonators,�?? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1717-1739 (1999).

K. Bierwirth, N. Schulz, and F. Arndt, �??Finite-difference analysis of rectangular dielectric waveguide structures,�?? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 34, 1104-1113 (1986).

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

H. Dong, A. Chronopoulos, J. Zou, and A. Gopinath, �??Vectorial integrated finite-difference analysis of dielectric waveguides,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1559-1563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lüsse, P. Stuwe, J. Schüle, and H. G. Unger, �??Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by a new finite difference method,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487-493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, S. T. Chu, and S. K. Chaudhuri, �??The finite-difference vector beam propagation method. Analysis and Assessment,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295-305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, �??Modeling large air fraction holey optical fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 50-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Midrio, M. P. Singh, and C. G. Someda, �??The space filling mode of holey fibers: an analytical vectorial solution,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1031-1037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Localized function method for modeling defect modes in 2-D photonic crystals,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2078-2081(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Qiu, �??Analysis of guided modes in photonic crystal fibers using the finite-difference time-domain method,�?? Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 327-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, �??Multipole analysis of hole-assisted optical fibers,�?? Opt. Commun. 206, 333-339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, �??Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers by the finite element method,�?? Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, �??Visible continuum generation in air silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800nm,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andres, �??Nearly zero ultraflattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 790-792 (2000).

G. E. Town and J. T. Lizer, �??Tapered holey fibers for spot size and numerical-aperture conversion,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1042-1044 (2001).

T. P.White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, �??Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1660-1662 (2001).

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C.McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, �??Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 488-490 (2001).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andres, and M. V. Andres, �??Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 276-278 (1999).

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, and D. J. Richardson, �??Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, �??All-silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, Jr., �??Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 229-231 (2001).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. S. Chiang, �??Review of numerical and approximate methods for the modal analysis of general optical dielectric waveguides,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, s113-s134 (1994).

C. Vassallo, �??1993-1995 optical mode solvers,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 95-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics, (CRC, Boca Raton, 1993).

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