Abstract

We investigate a depth-based refocusing method using four-dimensional (4D) light field data, which can reduce directional aliasing artifacts in a refocused image. Unlike conventional filtering-based methods, the proposed method estimates the amount of aliasing artifacts using the disparity information between two neighboring views. It then applies an exact smoothing operation to the refocused image in order to remove the aliasing artifacts. By doing that, the proposed method is able to generate a smoothly blurred image in the out-of-focus region and a sharp image in the focused region. In addition, as the proposed method performs a smoothing operation on the refocused image, it does not create virtual views, which often requires an extremely large amount of computational resources. In both simulation and experiment, the proposed method shows outstanding performance compared to conventional methods.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. J. Fiss, B. Curless, and R. Szeliski, “Refocusing plenoptic images using depth-adaptive splatting,” in IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography (ICCP, 2014), pp. 1–9.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.
  14. J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).
  15. M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 31–42 (1996).
  16. A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. J. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 297–306 (2000).
  17. X. Yu, R. Wang, and J. Yu, “Real-time depth of field rendering via dynamic light field generation and filtering,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 29(7), pp. 2099–2107 (2010).
  18. K. Takahashi, “Theoretical analysis of view interpolation with inaccurate depth information,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(2), 718–732 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).
  20. P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Wanner, S. Meister, and B. Goldluecke, “Datasets and benchmarks for densely sampled 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of Vision Modeling and Visualization (VMV, 2013), pp. 225–226.
  22. Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 41–48.

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

K. Takahashi, “Theoretical analysis of view interpolation with inaccurate depth information,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(2), 718–732 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. E. Bishop and P. Favaro, “The light field camera: Extended depth of field, aliasing, and superresolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(5), 972–986 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Georgiev, G. Chunev, and A. Lumsdaine, “Superresolution with the focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. SPIE 7873, 78730X (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Andalman, A.

Anderson, C. H.

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Bergen, J. R.

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Berkner, K.

Bishop, T. E.

T. E. Bishop and P. Favaro, “The light field camera: Extended depth of field, aliasing, and superresolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(5), 972–986 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blake, A.

P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bovik, A.

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brédif, M.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

Brenner, K.-H.

Broxton, M.

Burt, P. J.

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Chai, J.-X.

J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).

Chan, S.-C.

J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).

Chunev, G.

T. Georgiev, G. Chunev, and A. Lumsdaine, “Superresolution with the focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. SPIE 7873, 78730X (2011).
[Crossref]

Cohen, N.

Curless, B.

J. Fiss, B. Curless, and R. Szeliski, “Refocusing plenoptic images using depth-adaptive splatting,” in IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography (ICCP, 2014), pp. 1–9.

Deisseroth, K.

Duval, G.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

Favaro, P.

T. E. Bishop and P. Favaro, “The light field camera: Extended depth of field, aliasing, and superresolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(5), 972–986 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fiss, J.

J. Fiss, B. Curless, and R. Szeliski, “Refocusing plenoptic images using depth-adaptive splatting,” in IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography (ICCP, 2014), pp. 1–9.

Gangnet, M.

P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Georgiev, T.

T. Georgiev, G. Chunev, and A. Lumsdaine, “Superresolution with the focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. SPIE 7873, 78730X (2011).
[Crossref]

Goldluecke, B.

S. Wanner, S. Meister, and B. Goldluecke, “Datasets and benchmarks for densely sampled 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of Vision Modeling and Visualization (VMV, 2013), pp. 225–226.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 41–48.

Gortler, S. J.

A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. J. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 297–306 (2000).

Grosenick, L.

Hanrahan, P.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 31–42 (1996).

Horowitz, M.

N. Cohen, S. Yang, A. Andalman, M. Broxton, L. Grosenick, K. Deisseroth, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding,” Opt. Express 22, 24817–24839 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

Isaksen, A.

A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. J. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 297–306 (2000).

Joshi, N.

V. Vaish, B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, and M. Levoy, “Using plane+ parallax for calibrating dense camera arrays,” in IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), 1, pp. I–2.

Junker, A.

Lam, E. Y.

Levoy, M.

N. Cohen, S. Yang, A. Andalman, M. Broxton, L. Grosenick, K. Deisseroth, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding,” Opt. Express 22, 24817–24839 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Broxton, L. Grosenick, S. Yang, N. Cohen, A. Andalman, K. Deisseroth, and M. Levoy, “Wave optics theory and 3-D deconvolution for the light field microscope,” Opt. Express 21, 25418–25439 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vaish, B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, and M. Levoy, “Using plane+ parallax for calibrating dense camera arrays,” in IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), 1, pp. I–2.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 31–42 (1996).

Lumsdaine, A.

T. Georgiev, G. Chunev, and A. Lumsdaine, “Superresolution with the focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. SPIE 7873, 78730X (2011).
[Crossref]

McMillan, L.

A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. J. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 297–306 (2000).

Meister, S.

S. Wanner, S. Meister, and B. Goldluecke, “Datasets and benchmarks for densely sampled 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of Vision Modeling and Visualization (VMV, 2013), pp. 225–226.

Mou, X.

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, R.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

R. Ng, “Digital light field photography,” Ph. D. Thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

Ogden, J. M.

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Pérez, P.

P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sheikh, H.

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shroff, S. A.

Shum, H.-Y.

J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).

Simoncelli, E.

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenau, T.

Szeliski, R.

J. Fiss, B. Curless, and R. Szeliski, “Refocusing plenoptic images using depth-adaptive splatting,” in IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography (ICCP, 2014), pp. 1–9.

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, “Theoretical analysis of view interpolation with inaccurate depth information,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(2), 718–732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tong, X.

J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).

Vaish, V.

V. Vaish, B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, and M. Levoy, “Using plane+ parallax for calibrating dense camera arrays,” in IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), 1, pp. I–2.

Wang, J. Y. A.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.

Wang, R.

X. Yu, R. Wang, and J. Yu, “Real-time depth of field rendering via dynamic light field generation and filtering,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 29(7), pp. 2099–2107 (2010).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanner, S.

S. Wanner, S. Meister, and B. Goldluecke, “Datasets and benchmarks for densely sampled 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of Vision Modeling and Visualization (VMV, 2013), pp. 225–226.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 41–48.

Wilburn, B.

V. Vaish, B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, and M. Levoy, “Using plane+ parallax for calibrating dense camera arrays,” in IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), 1, pp. I–2.

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.

Yang, S.

Yu, J.

X. Yu, R. Wang, and J. Yu, “Real-time depth of field rendering via dynamic light field generation and filtering,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 29(7), pp. 2099–2107 (2010).

Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, R. Wang, and J. Yu, “Real-time depth of field rendering via dynamic light field generation and filtering,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 29(7), pp. 2099–2107 (2010).

Zhang, D.

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, G.

Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.

ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG) (1)

P. Pérez, M. Gangnet, and A. Blake, “Poisson image editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics (TOG),  22, 313–318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (3)

K. Takahashi, “Theoretical analysis of view interpolation with inaccurate depth information,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(2), 718–732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mou, and D. Zhang, “FSIM: A feature similarity index for image quality assessment,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(8), 2378–2386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

T. E. Bishop and P. Favaro, “The light field camera: Extended depth of field, aliasing, and superresolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(5), 972–986 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Georgiev, G. Chunev, and A. Lumsdaine, “Superresolution with the focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. SPIE 7873, 78730X (2011).
[Crossref]

RCA Eng. (1)

E. H. Adelson, C. H. Anderson, J. R. Bergen, P. J. Burt, and J. M. Ogden, “Pyramid methods in image processing,” RCA Eng. 29, 33–41 (1984).

Other (11)

S. Wanner, S. Meister, and B. Goldluecke, “Datasets and benchmarks for densely sampled 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of Vision Modeling and Visualization (VMV, 2013), pp. 225–226.

Z. Xiao, Q. Wang, G. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Aliasing detection and reduction in plenoptic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3326–3333.

J.-X. Chai, X. Tong, S.-C. Chan, and H.-Y. Shum, “Plenoptic sampling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 307–318 (2000).

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 31–42 (1996).

A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. J. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 297–306 (2000).

X. Yu, R. Wang, and J. Yu, “Real-time depth of field rendering via dynamic light field generation and filtering,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 29(7), pp. 2099–2107 (2010).

J. Fiss, B. Curless, and R. Szeliski, “Refocusing plenoptic images using depth-adaptive splatting,” in IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography (ICCP, 2014), pp. 1–9.

V. Vaish, B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, and M. Levoy, “Using plane+ parallax for calibrating dense camera arrays,” in IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), 1, pp. I–2.

R. Ng, “Digital light field photography,” Ph. D. Thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 41–48.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR of Stanford University (2005).

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