Abstract

Neuroimaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been used to study the change in the activity of the human brain during visual spatial tests of varying complexity. It is shown that, along with an increase in activity in brain structures responsible for the task, there is a decrease in activity in other areas that are not engaged during the visual signal processing. To estimate the equilibrium of activation and deactivation processes in the brain, the number of voxels (the minimum element of a 3D image in the brain) with a significant change in activity relative to the resting state was calculated for each subject. The results of data averaging for all subjects showed that the total volume of activated regions increases with the problem complexity. The volume of brain regions that decreased their activity during the test showed a similar dependence on complexity—the more difficult the task, the greater the number of deactivated voxels. The data obtained suggest the existence of mechanisms for the redistribution of neuronal activity in the human brain to maintain a balance between the activated and deactivated regions, which makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditure of the brain with an increase in cognitive loads.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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