Abstract

A model has been developed of how the threshold contrast of the visual system depends on the external conditions, based on the tremor modulation signal. The model is tested on experimental arrays of the threshold perception of disks, sinusoidal and rectangular grids, the Ricco and Piper laws for spatial summation, and the Bloch–Charpentier and Blondel–Rey laws for the temporal summation of the signal. It is shown that the results converge. The proposed model describes the dependence of the perception threshold on the adaptation brightness, the angular size of the stimulus, and the time that the stimulus is presented. For a specific shape of the stimulus, the model has a simple analytical expression that contains no correction factors or functions, and this makes it convenient for carrying out illumination-engineering calculations and calculating the operating range of optical and optoelectronic devices. A physiological treatment of the model correlates with the selective organization of the sections of the visual cortex.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

2004

N. N.  Krasil’nikov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, O. I.  Krasil’nikova, “A spatiotemporal functional model of the primary links of the visual system,” Opt. Zh. 71, No. 7, 24 (2004) [J. Opt. Technol. 71, 438 (2004)].

1978

R.  Savoy, “Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, No. 2, 76 (1978).

1975

R.  Savoy, J.  McCann, “Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: Dependence on number of cycles,” J. Opt. Soc Am. 65, 343 (1975).

1966

F. W.  Campbell, R. W.  Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

1963

1946

Al’tman, Ya. A.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J.  Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (HV, Knegsel, 1999).

Bigdai, E. V.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Blackwell, H. R.

Bondarko, V. M.

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W.  Campbell, R. W.  Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

Danilova, M. V.

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Egorova, M. A.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Glezer, V. D.

V. D.  Glezer, I. I.  Tsukkerman, Information and Vision (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1961).

Golubev, V. N.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Govardovskii, V. I.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W.  Campbell, R. W.  Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

Herault, J.

J.  Herault, Vision: Images, Signals and Neural Networks. Models of Neural Processing in Visual Perception, Vol. 19 of Progress in Neural Processing (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2010).

Hoch, T.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H.  Hubel, Eye, Brain, Vision (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1988; Mir, Moscow, 1990).

Izhikevich, E. M.

E. M.  Izhikevich, Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience (MIT, Cambridge, 2007), p. 497.

Krasil’nikov, N. N.

N. N.  Krasil’nikov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, O. I.  Krasil’nikova, “A spatiotemporal functional model of the primary links of the visual system,” Opt. Zh. 71, No. 7, 24 (2004) [J. Opt. Technol. 71, 438 (2004)].

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Krasil’nikova, O. I.

N. N.  Krasil’nikov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, O. I.  Krasil’nikova, “A spatiotemporal functional model of the primary links of the visual system,” Opt. Zh. 71, No. 7, 24 (2004) [J. Opt. Technol. 71, 438 (2004)].

Lazarev, P. P.

P. P.  Lazarev, Ionic Theory of Excitation (Samizdat, Moscow, 1923).

Leushina, L. I.

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Lychakov, D. V.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Maizel, S. O.

S. O.  Maĭzel, Transformation of Radiant Energy in the Human Retina. Central Vision (KD Librokom, Moscow, 2010).

Malyshev, A.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

Martin, A. R.

J. G.  Nicholls, A. R.  Martin, B. G.  Wallace, From Neuron to Brain: A Cellular and Molecular Approach to the Function of the Nervous System (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 1992; URSS, Moscow, 2003).

Matveev, A. B.

V. V.  Meshkov, A. B.  Matveev, Physiological Optics and Colorimetry. Fundamentals of Illumination Engineering, part 2 (Énergoatomizdat, Moscow, 1989).

McCann, J.

R.  Savoy, J.  McCann, “Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: Dependence on number of cycles,” J. Opt. Soc Am. 65, 343 (1975).

Meshkov, V. V.

V. V.  Meshkov, A. B.  Matveev, Physiological Optics and Colorimetry. Fundamentals of Illumination Engineering, part 2 (Énergoatomizdat, Moscow, 1989).

V. V.  Meshkov, Foundations of Illumination Engineering, part 1 (Énergiya, Moscow, 1979).

Nevskaya, A. A.

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Nicholls, J. G.

J. G.  Nicholls, A. R.  Martin, B. G.  Wallace, From Neuron to Brain: A Cellular and Molecular Approach to the Function of the Nervous System (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 1992; URSS, Moscow, 2003).

Obermayer, K.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

Ostrovskii, M. A.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Radionova, E. A.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Rose, A.

A.  Rose, Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1977).

Samoilov, V. O.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Savoy, R.

R.  Savoy, “Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, No. 2, 76 (1978).

R.  Savoy, J.  McCann, “Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: Dependence on number of cycles,” J. Opt. Soc Am. 65, 343 (1975).

Shelepin, Yu. E.

N. N.  Krasil’nikov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, O. I.  Krasil’nikova, “A spatiotemporal functional model of the primary links of the visual system,” Opt. Zh. 71, No. 7, 24 (2004) [J. Opt. Technol. 71, 438 (2004)].

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Tsukkerman, I. I.

V. D.  Glezer, I. I.  Tsukkerman, Information and Vision (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1961).

Vartanyan, I. A.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

Volgushev, M.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

Volgushev, S.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

Wallace, B. G.

J. G.  Nicholls, A. R.  Martin, B. G.  Wallace, From Neuron to Brain: A Cellular and Molecular Approach to the Function of the Nervous System (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 1992; URSS, Moscow, 2003).

Yarbus, A. L.

A. L.  Yarbus, The Role of Eye Movements in the Process of Vision (Nauka, Moscow, 1965).

Eur. J. Neurosci.

T.  Hoch, S.  Volgushev, A.  Malyshev, K.  Obermayer, M.  Volgushev, “Modulation of the amplitude of c-band activity by stimulus phase enhances signal encoding,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 33, 1223 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc Am.

R.  Savoy, J.  McCann, “Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: Dependence on number of cycles,” J. Opt. Soc Am. 65, 343 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

F. W.  Campbell, R. W.  Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

Opt. Zh.

N. N.  Krasil’nikov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, O. I.  Krasil’nikova, “A spatiotemporal functional model of the primary links of the visual system,” Opt. Zh. 71, No. 7, 24 (2004) [J. Opt. Technol. 71, 438 (2004)].

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

R.  Savoy, “Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, No. 2, 76 (1978).

Other

P. G. J.  Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (HV, Knegsel, 1999).

V. M.  Bondarko, M. V.  Danilova, N. N.  Krasil’nikov, L. I.  Leushina, A. A.  Nevskaya, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Three-Dimensional Vision (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

J.  Herault, Vision: Images, Signals and Neural Networks. Models of Neural Processing in Visual Perception, Vol. 19 of Progress in Neural Processing (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2010).

A.  Rose, Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1977).

V. V.  Meshkov, A. B.  Matveev, Physiological Optics and Colorimetry. Fundamentals of Illumination Engineering, part 2 (Énergoatomizdat, Moscow, 1989).

J. M.  Lloyd, ed., Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, 1975), Mir, Moscow, 1978.

Ya. A.  Al’tman, E. V.  Bigdaĭ, I. A.  Vartanyan, V. I.  Govardovskiĭ, V. N.  Golubev, M. A.  Egorova, D. V.  Lychakov, M. A.  Ostrovskiĭ, E. A.  Radionova, V. O.  Samoĭlov, Yu. E.  Shelepin, Biophysics of Sensory Systems (InformMed, St. Petersburg, 2007).

D. H.  Hubel, Eye, Brain, Vision (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1988; Mir, Moscow, 1990).

J. G.  Nicholls, A. R.  Martin, B. G.  Wallace, From Neuron to Brain: A Cellular and Molecular Approach to the Function of the Nervous System (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 1992; URSS, Moscow, 2003).

V. D.  Glezer, I. I.  Tsukkerman, Information and Vision (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1961).

P. P.  Lazarev, Ionic Theory of Excitation (Samizdat, Moscow, 1923).

S. O.  Maĭzel, Transformation of Radiant Energy in the Human Retina. Central Vision (KD Librokom, Moscow, 2010).

V. V.  Meshkov, Foundations of Illumination Engineering, part 1 (Énergiya, Moscow, 1979).

A. L.  Yarbus, The Role of Eye Movements in the Process of Vision (Nauka, Moscow, 1965).

E. M.  Izhikevich, Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience (MIT, Cambridge, 2007), p. 497.

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