Abstract

Laser coagulation of the retina carries risk of damaging the neuroretina because of variation of the beam power and of the local pigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium and the choroid. The degree of coagulation depends on the induced temperature rise and the exposure time. Laser retinotherapy with optoacoustic monitoring of the temperature provides reproducible ophthalmologically invisible (subthreshold) damage of the retina in a wide range of laser power, regardless of local changes of the tissue structure. Optoacoustic temperature measurements are based on the excitation of a pressure wave in the retinal tissue by repeated low-energy probe laser pulses. The amplitude of the pressure signal, which can be detected by means of an acoustic transducer incorporated in a laser contact lens, correlates with the temperature of the tissue. This paper discusses promising directions of the use in clinical practice of real-time optoacoustic temperature monitoring of the retina during laser therapy in various irradiation regimes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

2013 (1)

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

2012 (2)

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

2011 (5)

J.  Lock, K.  Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 94, No. 1, 43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

A. M.  Shah, N. M.  Bressler, L. M.  Jampol, “Does laser still have a role in the management of retinal vascular and neovascular diseases?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152, 332 (2011).

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

2009 (3)

M. G.  Arsenault, M. C.  Kolios, W. M.  Whelan, “Optoacoustic detection of thermal lesions,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71771V (2009).

M.  Pramanik, L. V.  Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

2007 (1)

B. J.  Vakoc, G. J.  Tearney, B. E.  Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermal therapy using optoacoustic technique,” J. Phys. D 38, 2645 (2005).

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

2004 (1)

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

2003 (1)

A.  Vogel, V.  Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

1987 (1)

L. M.  Lyamshev, “Lasers in acoustics,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 151, 479 (1987) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 30, 252 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. E.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, M. G.

M. G.  Arsenault, M. C.  Kolios, W. M.  Whelan, “Optoacoustic detection of thermal lesions,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71771V (2009).

Baade, A.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

Bever, M.

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Bimgruber, R.

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

Birngruber, R.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

Blumenkranz, M. S.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J.  Vakoc, G. J.  Tearney, B. E.  Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bressler, N. M.

A. M.  Shah, N. M.  Bressler, L. M.  Jampol, “Does laser still have a role in the management of retinal vascular and neovascular diseases?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152, 332 (2011).

Brinkmann, R.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

Caliebe, A.

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

Cannata, J.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Debbeler, C.

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

Elsner, H.

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

Esenaliev, R. O.

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermal therapy using optoacoustic technique,” J. Phys. D 38, 2645 (2005).

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

Fong, K.

J.  Lock, K.  Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 94, No. 1, 43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Framme, C.

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

Gariano, R. F.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hartert, C.

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

Hausmann, K.

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Hilmes, M.

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

Hoerauf, H.

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

Hu, C.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Huttmann, G.

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

Hüttmann, G.

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

Jain, A.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jampol, L. M.

A. M.  Shah, N. M.  Bressler, L. M.  Jampol, “Does laser still have a role in the management of retinal vascular and neovascular diseases?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152, 332 (2011).

Kandulla, J.

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

Kleemann, S.

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

Koinzer, S.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Kolios, M. C.

M. G.  Arsenault, M. C.  Kolios, W. M.  Whelan, “Optoacoustic detection of thermal lesions,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71771V (2009).

Langejürgen, J.

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Larin, K. V.

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermal therapy using optoacoustic technique,” J. Phys. D 38, 2645 (2005).

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

Larina, I. V.

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermal therapy using optoacoustic technique,” J. Phys. D 38, 2645 (2005).

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

Leng, T.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leung, L.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lock, J.

J.  Lock, K.  Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 94, No. 1, 43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luft, S.

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

Lyamshev, L. M.

L. M.  Lyamshev, “Lasers in acoustics,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 151, 479 (1987) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 30, 252 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

Marcellino, G. R.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miura, Y.

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

Mordaunt, D.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

Müller, H. H.

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

Nomoto, H.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A.  Oraevsky, “Laser-induced acoustic and shock waves in ocular tissues,” (Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, Tex., 1995).

Palanker, D.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, Y. M.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pramanik, M.

M.  Pramanik, L. V.  Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ptaszynski, L.

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Roider, J.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

Saeger, M.

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

Schlott, K.

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

Schuele, G.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schüle, G.

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

G.  Schüle, “Mechanismen und On-line Dosimetrie bei selektiver RPE Therapie,” Dissertation (Lübeck Univ., 2003).

Shah, A. M.

A. M.  Shah, N. M.  Bressler, L. M.  Jampol, “Does laser still have a role in the management of retinal vascular and neovascular diseases?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152, 332 (2011).

Shung, K.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Sramek, C.

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

B. J.  Vakoc, G. J.  Tearney, B. E.  Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J.  Vakoc, G. J.  Tearney, B. E.  Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A.  Vogel, V.  Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A.  Vogel, V.  Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

M.  Pramanik, L. V.  Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, W. M.

M. G.  Arsenault, M. C.  Kolios, W. M.  Whelan, “Optoacoustic detection of thermal lesions,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71771V (2009).

Williams, J.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Wiltberger, M. W.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirbelauer, C.

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

Yellachich, D.

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yen, J.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Zhou, Q.

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. M.  Shah, N. M.  Bressler, L. M.  Jampol, “Does laser still have a role in the management of retinal vascular and neovascular diseases?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152, 332 (2011).

Biomed. Opt. Express. (1)

H. H.  Müller, L.  Ptaszynski, K.  Schlott, C.  Debbeler, M.  Bever, S.  Koinzer, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, G.  Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express. 3, 1025 (2012).

Chem. Rev. (1)

A.  Vogel, V.  Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

J.  Lock, K.  Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 94, No. 1, 43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, S.  Kleemann, M.  Saeger, A.  Baade, A.  Caliebe, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, J.  Roider, “Temperature-controlled retinal photocoagulation—a step toward automated laser treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3605 (2012).

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

B. J.  Vakoc, G. J.  Tearney, B. E.  Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.  Pramanik, L. V.  Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Noninvasive OA online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermal therapy using optoacoustic technique,” J. Phys. D 38, 2645 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (9)

M. G.  Arsenault, M. C.  Kolios, W. M.  Whelan, “Optoacoustic detection of thermal lesions,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71771V (2009).

J.  Langejürgen, K.  Schlott, M.  Bever, K.  Hausmann, S.  Koinzer, L.  Ptaszynski, J.  Roider, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Dependence of optoacoustic transients on exciting laser parameters for real-time monitoring of retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 7373, 73730K (2009).

R.  Brinkmann, S.  Koinzer, K.  Schlott, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, A.  Baade, S.  Luft, Y.  Miura, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, “Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 78850 (2011).

G.  Schüle, H.  Elsner, H.  Hoerauf, C.  Framme, J.  Roider, H.  Elsner, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA online dosimetry during selective RPE treatment,” Proc. SPIE 5314, 286 (2004).

G.  Schüle, G.  Huttmann, J.  Roider, C.  Wirbelauer, R.  Bimgruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Optoacoustic measurements during μs irradiation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 3914, 230 (2000).

K. V.  Larin, I. V.  Larina, M.  Motamedi, R. O.  Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution in tissues with optoacoustic technique in real time,” Proc. SPIE 3916, 311 (2000).

A.  Baade, K.  Schlott, S.  Luft, L.  Ptaszynski, M.  Bever, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “Accuracy of real-time OA temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8092, 80921B (2011).

K.  Schlott, S.  Koinzer, A.  Baade, R.  Birngruber, J.  Roider, R.  Brinkmann, “Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation,” Proc. SPIE 8800, 880009 (2013).

J.  Kandulla, H.  Elsner, M.  Hilmes, C.  Hartert, R.  Birngruber, R.  Brinkmann, “OA temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during transpupillary thermotherapy,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 208 (2005).

Retina (2)

M. S.  Blumenkranz, D.  Yellachich, D. E.  Andersen, M. W.  Wiltberger, D.  Mordaunt, G. R.  Marcellino, D.  Palanker, “Semiautomated patterned scanning laser for retinal photocoagulation,” Retina 26, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. M.  Paulus, A.  Jain, H.  Nomoto, C.  Sramek, R. F.  Gariano, D.  Andersen, G.  Schuele, L.  Leung, T.  Leng, D.  Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposure using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (1)

L. M.  Lyamshev, “Lasers in acoustics,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 151, 479 (1987) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 30, 252 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G.  Schüle, “Mechanismen und On-line Dosimetrie bei selektiver RPE Therapie,” Dissertation (Lübeck Univ., 2003).

J.  Cannata, Q.  Zhou, J.  Williams, J.  Yen, C.  Hu, K.  Shung, Development of high frequency ultrasound transducers for medical imaging, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, 2008.

A. A.  Oraevsky, “Laser-induced acoustic and shock waves in ocular tissues,” (Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, Tex., 1995).

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