Ultrashort heating of substances converts them into the two-temperature (2T) state with hot electrons. The thickness of the heated layer rapidly increases into the depth of the metal in this state (by comparison with the thickness of the skin layer), and the pressure in the heated layer rises sharply because of the high rate of heating (inertial confinement). A technique has been developed for taking into account 2T, thermomechanical, and multidimensional (target-structuring) phenomena. It is based on quantum-mechanical computations by means of the density functional, the solution of kinetic equations, and 2T hydrodynamic and molecular-dynamic calculations. The mechanism for forming superelastic shock waves and for constructing complex surface structures has been studied. The corresponding results have great significance for developing promising nanometallurgical technologies associated with laser pinning, for increasing corrosion resistance, and for altering optical surface characteristics.
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