Abstract

This article is devoted to the work of the Design Office of Precision Electronic Machine-Construction (KBTÉM OMO), which for more than fifty years has provided microelectronics for optomechanical equipment. The size of the elements of integrated circuits has been reduced by a factor of 30 (from 5 ?m to 180 nm) by using this equipment, and the accuracy with which they are arranged on the entire area of a wafer has been increased by a factor of 200 (from 2 ?m to 10 nm). The first integrated circuits, with tens of transistors, have metamorphosed into complex functional systems, with billions of transistors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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