Abstract

Modern optical systems of virtual displays are organized on various principles, including holographic, geometrical, and diffraction. This article discusses the most widely used types and features of these systems.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20, No. 4, 20 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.
  3. A. A.  Kucheryavy?, On-Board Information Systems. A Course of Lectures, ed. V. A.  Mishin G. I.  Klyuev (UlGTU, Ul’yanovsk, 2004).
  4. O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn display: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2, No. 3, 199 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P.  Rolland H.  Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence 9, 287 (2000).
  6. O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V.  Sadchikhin, “Projection-type information-display systems,” Opt. Zh. 66, No. 6, 52 (1999) [J. Opt. Technol. 66, 504 (1999)].
  9. S. M.  Marchuk, “Wide-angle projection objective for an information-display system,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 27 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 846 (2006)].
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.  Amitai, A. A.  Friesem, I.  Shariv, “Planar holographic optical device for beam expansion and display,” U.S. Patent No. 6 169 613 (January2001).
  12. L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).
  13. Y.  Amitai, “Light guide optical device,” U.S. Patent No. 8 004 765 B2 (August2011).
  14. “Light guide optical device,” European Patent Application No. EP1562066A2 (August2005).
  15. Y.  Amitai, S.  Reinhorn, A. A.  Freisem, “Visor display design based on planar holographic optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1352 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P.  Repetto, E.  Borello, B.  Stefano, “Light guide for display devices of the head-mounted or head-up type,” U.S. Patent 6 825 987 (November2004).
  17. L.  Eisen, M.  Meyklyar, M.  Golub, A.  Friesem, J.  Gurwich, V.  Weiss, “Planar configuration for image projection,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4005 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).
  19. A.  Samarin, “LCoS displays and their application,” Komp. Tekhnol. No. 8, 24 (2008).
  20. R.  Zhang H.  Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P.  Rolland H.  Hua, “Head-mounted displays,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, eds. R. B.  Johnson R. G.  Driggers (Taylor and Francis, 2005).
  22. M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).
  24. I. G.  Bronshte?n I. L.  Livshits, “Objective with a recessed entrance pupil (version),” Russian Patent No. RU 2 225 628 S2 (2001).
  25. H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D.  Cheng, Y.  Wang, H.  Hua, J.  Sasian, “Design of a wide-angle, lightweight head-mounted display using free-form optics tiling,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2098 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J.  Allen, “Optical coatings: rugate coatings enhance performance of head-up displays,” Laser Focus World (2008): http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/2008/05/optical-coatings-rugate-coatings-enhance-performance-of-head-up-displays.html .
  28. S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. http://lumus-optical.com .

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20, No. 4, 20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A.  Samarin, “LCoS displays and their application,” Komp. Tekhnol. No. 8, 24 (2008).

2007 (1)

R.  Zhang H.  Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn display: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2, No. 3, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M.  Marchuk, “Wide-angle projection objective for an information-display system,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 27 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 846 (2006)].
[CrossRef]

L.  Eisen, M.  Meyklyar, M.  Golub, A.  Friesem, J.  Gurwich, V.  Weiss, “Planar configuration for image projection,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P.  Rolland H.  Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence 9, 287 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. V.  Sadchikhin, “Projection-type information-display systems,” Opt. Zh. 66, No. 6, 52 (1999) [J. Opt. Technol. 66, 504 (1999)].

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Akiyama, T.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allan, S. T.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amitai, Y.

Y.  Amitai, S.  Reinhorn, A. A.  Freisem, “Visor display design based on planar holographic optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Amitai, A. A.  Friesem, I.  Shariv, “Planar holographic optical device for beam expansion and display,” U.S. Patent No. 6 169 613 (January2001).

Y.  Amitai, “Light guide optical device,” U.S. Patent No. 8 004 765 B2 (August2011).

Anitropov, R. V.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Barmicheva, G. V.

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

Borello, E.

P.  Repetto, E.  Borello, B.  Stefano, “Light guide for display devices of the head-mounted or head-up type,” U.S. Patent 6 825 987 (November2004).

Borodin, Y. P.

A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bronshtein, I. G.

I. G.  Bronshte?n I. L.  Livshits, “Objective with a recessed entrance pupil (version),” Russian Patent No. RU 2 225 628 S2 (2001).

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Bronshtein, T. I.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Cakmakci, O.

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20, No. 4, 20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn display: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2, No. 3, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, D.

Chernopiatov, A. V.

A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chertkov, A. S.

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cole, C.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Éfros, A. I.

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

Eisen, L.

Freisem, A. A.

Friesem, A.

Friesem, A. A.

Y.  Amitai, A. A.  Friesem, I.  Shariv, “Planar holographic optical device for beam expansion and display,” U.S. Patent No. 6 169 613 (January2001).

Fuchs, H.

J. P.  Rolland H.  Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence 9, 287 (2000).

Gan, M. A.

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

Gan, Ya. M.

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

Golub, M.

Gurwich, J.

Gustafsson, J.

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

Herrington, B.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, D. G.

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, K.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Hoshi, H.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

D.  Cheng, Y.  Wang, H.  Hua, J.  Sasian, “Design of a wide-angle, lightweight head-mounted display using free-form optics tiling,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.  Zhang H.  Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P.  Rolland H.  Hua, “Head-mounted displays,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, eds. R. B.  Johnson R. G.  Driggers (Taylor and Francis, 2005).

Jackson, T. W.

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, T.

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

Kucheryavyi, A. A.

A. A.  Kucheryavy?, On-Board Information Systems. A Course of Lectures, ed. V. A.  Mishin G. I.  Klyuev (UlGTU, Ul’yanovsk, 2004).

Lindfors, C.

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

Lingwood, D.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, I. L.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

I. G.  Bronshte?n I. L.  Livshits, “Objective with a recessed entrance pupil (version),” Russian Patent No. RU 2 225 628 S2 (2001).

Mackrodt, K.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchuk, S. M.

S. M.  Marchuk, “Wide-angle projection objective for an information-display system,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 27 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 846 (2006)].
[CrossRef]

Masuda, L.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Mattson, L.

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

Meyer, F. M.

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyklyar, M.

Morishima, H.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, O. V.

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

Okada, N.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Okumura, H.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Okuyama, A.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olwal, A.

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

Pimenov, Yu. D.

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

Putilin, A. N.

A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reinhorn, S.

Reising, J. M.

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Repetto, P.

P.  Repetto, E.  Borello, B.  Stefano, “Light guide for display devices of the head-mounted or head-up type,” U.S. Patent 6 825 987 (November2004).

Rolland, J.

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20, No. 4, 20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn display: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2, No. 3, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

J. P.  Rolland H.  Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence 9, 287 (2000).

J. P.  Rolland H.  Hua, “Head-mounted displays,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, eds. R. B.  Johnson R. G.  Driggers (Taylor and Francis, 2005).

Sadchikhin, A. V.

A. V.  Sadchikhin, “Projection-type information-display systems,” Opt. Zh. 66, No. 6, 52 (1999) [J. Opt. Technol. 66, 504 (1999)].

Samarin, A.

A.  Samarin, “LCoS displays and their application,” Komp. Tekhnol. No. 8, 24 (2008).

Sasaki, T.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Sasian, J.

Shariv, I.

Y.  Amitai, A. A.  Friesem, I.  Shariv, “Planar holographic optical device for beam expansion and display,” U.S. Patent No. 6 169 613 (January2001).

Shcheglov, S. A.

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

Shimakawa, S.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Slim, T.

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snow, M. P.

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokol’skii, M. N.

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

Starkov, A. A.

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

Stefano, B.

P.  Repetto, E.  Borello, B.  Stefano, “Light guide for display devices of the head-mounted or head-up type,” U.S. Patent 6 825 987 (November2004).

Stroganov, A. A.

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Taniguchi, N.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vasil’ev, V. N.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Volkov, D. Yu.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Volkova, S. L.

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

Wang, Y.

Weiss, V.

Yamazaki, S.

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

R.  Zhang H.  Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn display: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2, No. 3, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Komp. Tekhnol. (1)

A.  Samarin, “LCoS displays and their application,” Komp. Tekhnol. No. 8, 24 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

O.  Cakmakci J.  Rolland, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20, No. 4, 20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Zh. (4)

O. V.  Nikiforov, Yu. D.  Pimenov, M. N.  Sokol’ski?, A. A.  Stroganov, A. I.  Éfros, “The optical system of a wide-angle collimator-type aviation display,” Opt. Zh. 76, No. 10, 37 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 620 (2009)].
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Gan, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, A. S.  Chertkov, “Wide-angle optical systems with a combiner based on synthesized volume holograms for helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 3, 18 (2008) [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V.  Sadchikhin, “Projection-type information-display systems,” Opt. Zh. 66, No. 6, 52 (1999) [J. Opt. Technol. 66, 504 (1999)].

S. M.  Marchuk, “Wide-angle projection objective for an information-display system,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 27 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 846 (2006)].
[CrossRef]

Presence (1)

J. P.  Rolland H.  Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence 9, 287 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. N.  Putilin, Y. P.  Borodin, A. V.  Chernopiatov, “Waveguide holograms in LCD illumination units,” Proc. SPIE 4511, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T.  Allan, B.  Herrington, C.  Cole, K.  Mackrodt, T.  Slim, D.  Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R.  Zhang H.  Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P.  Snow, T. W.  Jackson, F. M.  Meyer, J. M.  Reising, D. G.  Hopper, “AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs,” Proc. SPIE 3690, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.  Hoshi, N.  Taniguchi, H.  Morishima, T.  Akiyama, S.  Yamazaki, A.  Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

R. V.  Anitropov, T. I.  Bronshte?n, I. G.  Bronshte?n, V. N.  Vasil’ev, D. Yu.  Volkov, S. L.  Volkova, I. L.  Livshits, “Wide-angle objective with a recessed entrance pupil,” Patent for a useful model No. RU 101212 U1 (2010).

I. G.  Bronshte?n I. L.  Livshits, “Objective with a recessed entrance pupil (version),” Russian Patent No. RU 2 225 628 S2 (2001).

J. P.  Rolland H.  Hua, “Head-mounted displays,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, eds. R. B.  Johnson R. G.  Driggers (Taylor and Francis, 2005).

http://lumus-optical.com .

J.  Allen, “Optical coatings: rugate coatings enhance performance of head-up displays,” Laser Focus World (2008): http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/2008/05/optical-coatings-rugate-coatings-enhance-performance-of-head-up-displays.html .

Y.  Amitai, A. A.  Friesem, I.  Shariv, “Planar holographic optical device for beam expansion and display,” U.S. Patent No. 6 169 613 (January2001).

L.  Masuda, S.  Shimakawa, N.  Okada, K.  Horiuchi, H.  Okumura, T.  Sasaki, H.  Suzuki, “Optical element with a Fresnel lens, display apparatus, display method and moving body,” European Patent Application No. EP 2372407A2 (May2011).

Y.  Amitai, “Light guide optical device,” U.S. Patent No. 8 004 765 B2 (August2011).

“Light guide optical device,” European Patent Application No. EP1562066A2 (August2005).

A.  Olwal, C.  Lindfors, J.  Gustafsson, T.  Kjellberg, L.  Mattson, “ASTOR: an autostereoscopic optical see-through augmented reality system,” in Proceedings of ISMAR 2005 (IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality), Oct. 5–8, 2005, pp. 24–27.

A. A.  Kucheryavy?, On-Board Information Systems. A Course of Lectures, ed. V. A.  Mishin G. I.  Klyuev (UlGTU, Ul’yanovsk, 2004).

M. A.  Gan, G. V.  Barmicheva, A. A.  Starkov, S. A.  Shcheglov, Ya. M.  Gan, “Optical system of a helmet-mounted collimator display,” Russian Patent No. RU 2 353 958 C1 (2009).

P.  Repetto, E.  Borello, B.  Stefano, “Light guide for display devices of the head-mounted or head-up type,” U.S. Patent 6 825 987 (November2004).

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