Abstract

We theoretically study the formation of the steady state multiple dark photovoltaic solitons in the closed-circuit photovoltaic photorefractive crystal. The results indicate that the formation of the multiple dark photovoltaic solitons in the closed-circuit photovoltaic crystal is dependent on the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal. The number of the solitons generated increases with the initial width of the dark notch. If the initial width of the dark notch is small, only a fundamental soliton or Y-junction soliton pair is generated. As the initial width of the dark notch is increased, the dark notch tends to split into an odd (or even) number of multiple dark photovoltaic solitons sequence, which realizes a progressive transition from a lower-order soliton to a higher-order solitons sequence. When the multiple solitons are generated, the separations between adjacent dark solitons become slightly smaller. The soliton pairs far away from the center have bigger width and less visibility and they move away from each other as they propagate in the photorefractive nonlinear crystal.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran, “Multiple dark soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 107, pp. 55–58 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 10, pp. 716–718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. G. Chen, M. Segev, S. R. Singh, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Sequential formation of multiple dark photorefractive spatial solitons: experiments and theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 6, pp. 1407–1417 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. G. Chen and M. Segev, “Sequences of high-order dark photorefractive spatial solitons and soliton-induced waveguides formed in bulk SBN,” Proc. SPIE 2896, pp. 148–157 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” Top. Appl. Phys. 114, pp. 547–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Bodnar, “Dark photovoltaic spatial solitons: experiment and numerical solution,” Proc. SPIE 6582, 65821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, R. Guo, N. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Waveguides and directional coupler induced by white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, No. 9, pp. 1674–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Couton, H. Maillotte, and M. Chauvet, “Self-formation of multiple spatial photovoltaic solitons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, pp. S223–S230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Chauvet, “Temporal analysis of open-circuit dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 12, pp. 2515–2522(2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Królikowski, B. L. Davies, and C. Denz, “Photorefractive solitons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, pp. 3–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. Guo, M. Henry, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and G. L. Wood, “Fixing multiple waveguides induced by photorefractive solitons: directional couplers and beam splitters,” Opt. Lett. 26, No. 16, pp. 1274–1276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (4)

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, No. 2, pp. 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Y-junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 13, pp. 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen and M. Segev, “Sequences of high-order dark photorefractive spatial solitons and soliton-induced waveguides formed in bulk SBN,” Proc. SPIE 2896, pp. 148–157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 10, pp. 716–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran, “Multiple dark soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 107, pp. 55–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 37, No. 5, pp. 823–825 (1973).

Ahles, M.

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asaro, M.

Barry, L. D.

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, “Photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 7, pp. 1772–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Y-junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 13, pp. 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran, “Multiple dark soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 107, pp. 55–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bodnar, M.

M. Bodnar, “Dark photovoltaic spatial solitons: experiment and numerical solution,” Proc. SPIE 6582, 65821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

G. Couton, H. Maillotte, and M. Chauvet, “Self-formation of multiple spatial photovoltaic solitons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, pp. S223–S230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, “Temporal analysis of open-circuit dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 12, pp. 2515–2522(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Coskun, T. H.

Couton, G.

G. Couton, H. Maillotte, and M. Chauvet, “Self-formation of multiple spatial photovoltaic solitons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, pp. S223–S230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, and P. D. Porto, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” in Spatial Solitons, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2001, vol. 82, chap. IV, pp. 61–86.

Davies, B. L.

W. Królikowski, B. L. Davies, and C. Denz, “Photorefractive solitons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, pp. 3–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” Top. Appl. Phys. 114, pp. 547–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, and P. D. Porto, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” in Spatial Solitons, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2001, vol. 82, chap. IV, pp. 61–86.

Denz, C.

W. Królikowski, B. L. Davies, and C. Denz, “Photorefractive solitons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, pp. 3–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran, “Multiple dark soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 107, pp. 55–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, “Photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 7, pp. 1772–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Y-junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 13, pp. 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guo, A.

Guo, J. B.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Henry, M.

Herden, C.

D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).

Hu, X. H.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).

Królikowski, W.

W. Królikowski, B. L. Davies, and C. Denz, “Photorefractive solitons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, pp. 3–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. M.

Liu, X.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, X. W.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. Q.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Maillotte, H.

G. Couton, H. Maillotte, and M. Chauvet, “Self-formation of multiple spatial photovoltaic solitons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, pp. S223–S230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martí-Panameño, E.

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Méndez-Otero, M. M.

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Moerner, W. E.

Ostroverkhova, O.

Petter, J.

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Porto, P. D.

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, and P. D. Porto, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” in Spatial Solitons, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2001, vol. 82, chap. IV, pp. 61–86.

Rodríguez-Montero, P.

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Schröder, J.

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” Top. Appl. Phys. 114, pp. 547–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Guo, M. Henry, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and G. L. Wood, “Fixing multiple waveguides induced by photorefractive solitons: directional couplers and beam splitters,” Opt. Lett. 26, No. 16, pp. 1274–1276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, “Photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 7, pp. 1772–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen, M. Segev, S. R. Singh, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Sequential formation of multiple dark photorefractive spatial solitons: experiments and theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 6, pp. 1407–1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 10, pp. 716–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen and M. Segev, “Sequences of high-order dark photorefractive spatial solitons and soliton-induced waveguides formed in bulk SBN,” Proc. SPIE 2896, pp. 148–157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Y-junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 13, pp. 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 37, No. 5, pp. 823–825 (1973).

Sheldon, M.

Singh, S. R.

Skinner, S. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, G. Y. Tian, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Tong, “(1+1)-Dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional waveguides induced by self-focused dark notches and crosses in LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Opt. 36, pp. 8982–8986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, No. 2, pp. 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

Tian, G. Y.

Tong, Y. C.

Träger, D.

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, “Photovoltaic spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, No. 7, pp. 1772–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Y-junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, No. 13, pp. 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weilnau, C.

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wesner, M.

D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).

Wood, G. L.

Xu, J.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. J.

S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, G. Y. Tian, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Tong, “(1+1)-Dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional waveguides induced by self-focused dark notches and crosses in LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Opt. 36, pp. 8982–8986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, No. 2, pp. 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yang, X. P.

Yariv, A.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, V. E.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 37, No. 5, pp. 823–825 (1973).

Zhang, G. Q.

Zhang, G. Y.

S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, G. Y. Tian, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Tong, “(1+1)-Dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional waveguides induced by self-focused dark notches and crosses in LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Opt. 36, pp. 8982–8986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, No. 2, pp. 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

Ann. Phys. (1)

C. Weilnau, M. Ahles, J. Petter, D. Träger, J. Schröder, and C. Denz, “Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media,” Ann. Phys. 11, pp. 573–629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, No. 2, pp. 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, K. H. Li, and B. Y. Liu, “Steady-state multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, No. 3, pp. 65–69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

D. Kip, C. Herden, and M. Wesner, “All-optical signal routing using interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons,” Ferroelectrics 274, pp. 135–142 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Królikowski, B. L. Davies, and C. Denz, “Photorefractive solitons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, pp. 3–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark spatial soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, No. 9, pp. 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

G. Couton, H. Maillotte, and M. Chauvet, “Self-formation of multiple spatial photovoltaic solitons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, pp. S223–S230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. M. Méndez-Otero, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Rodríguez-Montero, and E. Martí-Panameño, “High order dark spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 193, pp. 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Lu, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Temporal behavior of dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media,” Opt. Commun. 281, pp. 2913–2917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran, “Multiple dark soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 107, pp. 55–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, No. 6, pp. R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, No. 4, pp. 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pramana (1)

Y. H. Zhang, K. Q. Lu, J. B. Guo, X. W. Long, X. H. Hu, and K. H. Li, “Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Pramana 78, No. 2, pp. 265–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Z. G. Chen and M. Segev, “Sequences of high-order dark photorefractive spatial solitons and soliton-induced waveguides formed in bulk SBN,” Proc. SPIE 2896, pp. 148–157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bodnar, “Dark photovoltaic spatial solitons: experiment and numerical solution,” Proc. SPIE 6582, 65821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 37, No. 5, pp. 823–825 (1973).

Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” Top. Appl. Phys. 114, pp. 547–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, and P. D. Porto, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” in Spatial Solitons, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2001, vol. 82, chap. IV, pp. 61–86.

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