Abstract

Algorithms are presented for the adaptive processing of binary images of silhouettes of the human hand obtained by means of color-brightness filters. These algorithms are based on the use of a combination of elementary morphological operations that take into account the direction of the fingers. Algorithms are presented for removing noise on binary images that are adapted to the result of the operation of a color filter, and a method is presented for filling internal contours of a silhouette of the hand in order to remove grouped marking errors. The experimental results show that the proposed image-processing method increases the probability of successful detection, tracking of the hand, and recognition of gestures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O.  Ben Henia, M.  Hariti, S.  Bouakaz, “A two-step minimization algorithm for model-based HandTracking,” in Eighteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory, Plzen, Czech Republic, February1–4, 2010, pp. 189–197.
  5. I.  Oikonomidis, N.  Kyriazis, A. A.  Argyros, “Efficient model-based 3D tracking of hand articulations using Kinect,” in Proceedings of the 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2011, University of Dundee, UK, Aug.29–Sept. 1, 2011, pp. 101.1–101.11.
  6. L.  Shapiro, G.  Stockman, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, New York, 2001; Binom, Moscow, 2006).
  7. M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.
  8. C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).
  9. A.  Albiol, L.  Torres, E. J.  Delp, “Optimum color spaces for skin detection,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 122–124.

2010

D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Albiol, A.

A.  Albiol, L.  Torres, E. J.  Delp, “Optimum color spaces for skin detection,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 122–124.

Argyros, A. A.

I.  Oikonomidis, N.  Kyriazis, A. A.  Argyros, “Efficient model-based 3D tracking of hand articulations using Kinect,” in Proceedings of the 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2011, University of Dundee, UK, Aug.29–Sept. 1, 2011, pp. 101.1–101.11.

Ben Henia, O.

O.  Ben Henia, M.  Hariti, S.  Bouakaz, “A two-step minimization algorithm for model-based HandTracking,” in Eighteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory, Plzen, Czech Republic, February1–4, 2010, pp. 189–197.

Bharath, A.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouakaz, S.

O.  Ben Henia, M.  Hariti, S.  Bouakaz, “A two-step minimization algorithm for model-based HandTracking,” in Eighteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory, Plzen, Czech Republic, February1–4, 2010, pp. 189–197.

Bull, A.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caridakis, G.

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C.

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Delp, E. J.

A.  Albiol, L.  Torres, E. J.  Delp, “Optimum color spaces for skin detection,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 122–124.

Dente, E.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drosopoulos, A.

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hariti, M.

O.  Ben Henia, M.  Hariti, S.  Bouakaz, “A two-step minimization algorithm for model-based HandTracking,” in Eighteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory, Plzen, Czech Republic, February1–4, 2010, pp. 189–197.

Huang, C.

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Huang, Y.

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Huovinen, S.

M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.

Karpouzis, K.

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, D.

D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kollias, S.

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kyriazis, N.

I.  Oikonomidis, N.  Kyriazis, A. A.  Argyros, “Efficient model-based 3D tracking of hand articulations using Kinect,” in Proceedings of the 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2011, University of Dundee, UK, Aug.29–Sept. 1, 2011, pp. 101.1–101.11.

Laaksonen, M.

M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.

Mann, S.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markham, C.

D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martinkauppi, B.

M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.

McDonald, J.

D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oikonomidis, I.

I.  Oikonomidis, N.  Kyriazis, A. A.  Argyros, “Efficient model-based 3D tracking of hand articulations using Kinect,” in Proceedings of the 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2011, University of Dundee, UK, Aug.29–Sept. 1, 2011, pp. 101.1–101.11.

Shapiro, L.

L.  Shapiro, G.  Stockman, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, New York, 2001; Binom, Moscow, 2006).

Soriano, M.

M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.

Stockman, G.

L.  Shapiro, G.  Stockman, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, New York, 2001; Binom, Moscow, 2006).

Tai, W.

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Torres, L.

A.  Albiol, L.  Torres, E. J.  Delp, “Optimum color spaces for skin detection,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 122–124.

Vrij, A.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Pattern Recogn. Lett.

E.  Dente, A.  Bharath, J.  Ng, A.  Vrij, S.  Mann, A.  Bull, “Tracking hand and finger movements for behavior analysis,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.  Kelly, J.  McDonald, C.  Markham, “A person-independent system for recognition of hand postures used in sign language,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 1359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G.  Caridakis, K.  Karpouzis, A.  Drosopoulos, S.  Kollias, “SOMM: self organizing Markov map for gesture recognition,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 31, 52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Real-Time Imaging

C.  Chiang, W.  Tai, M.  Yang, Y.  Huang, C.  Huang, “A novel method for detecting lips, eyes and faces in real time,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 277 (2003).

Other

A.  Albiol, L.  Torres, E. J.  Delp, “Optimum color spaces for skin detection,” in Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 122–124.

O.  Ben Henia, M.  Hariti, S.  Bouakaz, “A two-step minimization algorithm for model-based HandTracking,” in Eighteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory, Plzen, Czech Republic, February1–4, 2010, pp. 189–197.

I.  Oikonomidis, N.  Kyriazis, A. A.  Argyros, “Efficient model-based 3D tracking of hand articulations using Kinect,” in Proceedings of the 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2011, University of Dundee, UK, Aug.29–Sept. 1, 2011, pp. 101.1–101.11.

L.  Shapiro, G.  Stockman, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, New York, 2001; Binom, Moscow, 2006).

M.  Soriano, B.  Martinkauppi, S.  Huovinen, M.  Laaksonen, “Using the skin locus to cope with changing illumination conditions in color-based face tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nordic Signal Processing Symposium, Kolmarden, Sweden, 2000, pp. 383–386.

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